Information and Communication Technology appears to be driven non merely by those in instruction and concern but besides by the authoritiess to execute its maps and at the same clip can increase the efficiency and productiveness of the authorities services particularly in public sectors in the new millenary. Computer, Mobile, and Internet nowadays in our lives are ineluctable these yearss. In fact, our lives have been stimulated by the present of such ICT. Harmonizing to ( Bates.T, No Date ) every bit good the capacity for information and communications engineering ( ICT ) has been turning exponentially over the last 10 to 15 old ages.
ICT growing is non equal between different states, between different socio-economic groups within states or within different economic and societal sectors of society. This inequality is frequently referred to as the digital divide: the spread between those with entree and with the accomplishments to utilize ICT suitably, and those who do non hold this capacity ( Bates.T, No Date ) . Brunei is one of those states which have such capacity.
Brunei ‘s been smartly involved with the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation ( APEC ) , Asean, BIMP-EAGA, WHO and other successful and high-capacity administrations. With such dynamic engagement in planetary, provincial and sub-regional nucleus groups, the state has emerged and risen over the recent old ages, as a perceptible and spirited member in the universe personal businesss.
At the same clip, lament to sharpen its competitory border, the state has made springs and hounds in the countries of ICT specifically the E-Government National Centre as the cardinal hub for all authorities bureaus covering with ICT. This is besides alining with their mission to supply professional and quality ICT services to their clients.
3.0 Research Question
How can we better ICT literacy and use in Brunei E-Government National Centre?
4.0 Aim and Aims
As such, this study purpose is to place and better the literacy and use of E-Government National Centre employees in order to guarantee they are degree and up to day of the month with other states particularly in this epoch of information age. Therefore, this study is conducted to accomplish the undermentioned aims:
To analyze the ICT literacy in the E-Government National Centre.
To analyze the ICT use in the E-Government National Centre.
To place the features of the E-Government National Centre employees with high and low ICT literacy and use.
To analyze the E-Government National Centre employees perceptual experiences towards ICT.
5.0 The Survey Methodology
The study attack might be conducted by qualitative and quantitative research. The quantitative research involves study, trial, structured interviews, research lab experiments and non-participant observation. The information consequence will be presented in the descriptive signifier. Meanwhile the qualitative research involves participant observation and unstructured interviews. The information consequence will be presented in the signifier of citation or descriptions. ( Walkinson, D, 2000 ) .
In this study the research worker intends to transport out by interview and questionnaire. Based from Walkinson, D. ( 2000 ) , the interview is required when to in-depth information is needed. It besides can be structured and unstructured. The interview will be done on one-to-one footing in order to do the interviewee feels comfy and their names will be non revelation. Merely selected interviewee will be involved in this study. The continuances of interview takes no longer than 10 proceedingss per session. For the questionnaire, it will be designed in such demographic ways ; age, gender and information sing the surveyed work inside informations. A assorted of unfastened and closed questionnaire will be distributed.
Possibly, if required the study will be utilizing a focal point group in a lab simulation, in which their ICT literacy and use will be tested. At the terminal of the study, all consequences will be analysed and from at that place farther betterment can be done in order to suit the E-Government National Centre staff with ICT literacy and use.
5.1 Data Analysis
All informations aggregation will be classified and coded before being analysed. Once completed information has been analysed, the concluding consequence will be presented in saloon charts in order to give more ocular, comparable and clearer information about the research worker findings.
5.2 Ethical Aspects
Before continuing with the study, the research worker is required to inquire permission from the Director of E-Government National Centre. A research worker will utilize an official consent signifier for the Director ‘s to subscribe as an recognition of all information rights have been protected during the aggregation of informations. All informations aggregation will be kept firmly and any information no longer required will be erased.
5.3 Resources and Constrains
The study covers more than 50 staffs, so it will take 2 hebdomads for the questionnaire distribution and aggregation. 1 hebdomad for carry oning the interview. Availability of the interviewee considers another constrain, early assignment must be scheduled to guarantee all needed information is achieved.
6.0 Literature Review
Harmonizing to Losee, R.M. ( 1997 ) , the use of the term ‘information ‘ differs for persons in different walks of life. From specializers working in information based professions, such as communicating media and information direction, to those in the computer science and cognitive scientific disciplines, every bit good as by people involved in less scholarly chases. An illustration given by him, bookmans who are specifically involved in communicating are cognizant of the information overload caused by the monolithic input of mass media beginnings. On the other manus, electrical applied scientists have worked deeply to upgrade and better current engineering, peculiarly towards an addition in the sum and velocity of information transmitted, i.e. , the figure of spots per second transmitted over coaxal or fiber ocular circuits. He greatly emphasized that working through on chosen jobs, doing sensible determinations and pass oning efficaciously between these specializers and others are accomplishable, with the presence of great involvement in understanding information every bit good as the ability to mensurate the information itself.
As stated by Losee, R.M. ( 1997 ) , the term ‘information ‘ should be defined in a manner that it brings out the most basic nature of the ever-changing information or the information phenomena in a most accurate description. While similarities between information phenomena and other related constructs such as significance, certainty or cognition are made explicitly, the differences between these constructs should be made outstanding at the same time. For case, in what sense does information travel through clip or infinite? What are the similarities between information and cognition and what are the possible differences?
A good definition or theory of information, harmonizing to Losee, R.M. ( 1997 ) , both describe factually what occurs or what exists, together with an account of events. In add-on, some similarities or resemblance should be appropriately brought frontward to the natural linguistic communication impression of information. However, this resemblance would non necessitate to be supported moreover when the natural linguistic communication definition loses its power of generalization and explanatory. This happens when the common linguistic communication significance of information unites and in combination with the impression of utile information. This is when it is understood that information is considered utile in all instances.
Scholars and practicians have been utilizing definitions of communicating, in effort to depict, predict, and understand communicative phenomena. There are 100s of communicating definitions which are described explicitly and implicitly and these have been published in the communicating and related literatures. Losee, R.M. ( 1997 ) stated that these definitions are at discrepancy around the common linguistic communication definitions, in which these fluctuations rely on single scholarly involvements and general scholarly tendencies.
Communication occurs merely if, as purely emphasised by Losee, R.M. ( 1997 ) , information moves from one procedure ‘s input to the end product from a 2nd procedure, in which the 2nd procedure being the opposite of the first procedure. The consequence of this contrary is defined as a Communication. Relatively, communicating is more complex than information. The composing of multiple complementary enlightening procedures is referred to as communicating procedures.
In two enlightening procedures, what the first procedure “ does ” is being “ undoes ” by the 2nd procedure. In other words, the 2nd procedure “ undoes ” what the first procedure “ does ” . For illustration, undoes what speech production does. Call provide communicating circuits, in which an input device is equipped at the terminal of a connexion and an opposite, decrypting procedure at the other terminal. As Losee, R.M. ( 1997 ) stated, this is a similarity posed by telephone communicating, in which the linguistic communication constituent of a individual speaking on the telephone may be said to interact with the opposite linguistic communication constituent of the hearer.
The most general definition of engineering is the usage and application of scientific discipline or cognition to commerce and industry. For centuries, engineering has been significantly good in many countries of scientific discipline, commercialism and industry. Technology has been in usage since the beginning of the Stone Age when the earliest signifier of a knife or a shovel was made from a piece of rock or obsidian. Since so, engineering has embarked conspicuously. ( Yourdictionary.com, 2010 )
Furthermore the engineering, in footings of its relevancy in scientific discipline, is non restricted to merely physical applications and physical utensils. It can convey about benefits and advantages through the application of new methods of thought or new penetrations into the general cognition base. Computers and the Internet are one of the major applications of this type. Being such significant points, computing machines ‘ capableness to accomplish vital and cardinal thought processes more quickly makes it possible for concern and commercialism to progress much more aptly.
The Internet has wittingly changed the life of practically every individual on the planet, despite the fact that it has truly no concrete component. Valid clip information about planetary events and other up-to-date information are easy available and can be accessed within proceedingss through the Internet. Besides that, it besides has revolutionized the communicating which enables, non merely letters, but images, sound and picture information to be sent through the Internet.
6.4 Information and Communication Technology ( ICT )
From the earlier above mentioned definitions, we can see that there are links between each of these three words which besides known as Information and Communication Technology ( ICT ) . There are many definitions of ICT have been created by the old bookman.
Many have normally related the term ICT as merely computerised engineering. It is besides termed as advanced and exciting ways which enable life-time scholars to obtain world-wide and inclusive entree to information, acquisition and support. The term comprises of any communicating device or application, embracing, wireless, telecasting, cellular phones, computing machine and web hardware and package, satellite systems and much more. This besides includes the different services and applications related with them such as picture conferencing and distance acquisition. Therefore, it is evidently clear that ICT is includes the whole aggregation of both computing machine hardware and package, every bit good as telecommunication services and comfortss. ( Forth.J and Mason.G, 2004 ; Maximise-ict, 2010 ; Techterms, 2010 ) .
In the past few decennaries, information and communicating engineerings have provided society with a huge array of new communicating capablenesss. For illustration, people can pass on in real-time with others in different states utilizing engineerings such as instant messaging, voice over IP ( VoIP ) , and video-conferencing. Social networking web sites like Facebook and Friendster allow users from all over the universe to stay in contact and communicate on a regular footing.
As a consequence of the new and recent information and communicating engineerings, people now are much closer and are enable to interact with each other across the Earth. This is so called a “ planetary small town ” . ( Techterms, 2010 ) .
Forth, J. & A ; Manson, G. ( 2004 ) recognised that the technological revolution associated with ICTs is skill-intensive, non merely because of the accomplishment demands associated with ICT acceptance but besides due to the drawn-out periods of experimentation and larning that many administrations need to travel through in order to do effectual usage of ICTs. Indeed, the procedure of puting in assets which are complementary to ICTs such as package, concern reorganization and new merchandise development may lend more to raising the comparative demand for skilled employment than the diffusion of ICTs themselves.
6.5 ICT literacy
Computer literacy has been defined otherwise over the past old ages, which all seemed to hold similarities. Three old bookmans were cited by Oliver, R and Towers, S. ( No day of the month ) among the three, one of them, Scher ( 1984 ) , described computing machine literacy as technology-related and a proper experience for a individual to familiarize, shack and pull off itself in the modern universe. On the other manus, the description of computing machine literacy is more towards as a lasting tool, in which he defined it as the apprehension and accomplishments required for a citizen ‘s endurance and prosperity in a technology-dependent society. This, hence, can help in pull offing information and work outing hard and complex jobs. ( Hunter, 1984 ) .
Simonson et Al. ( 1987 ) nevertheless, described computing machine literacy as cognition of computing machine features, capablenesss and applications. It is besides an ability to set the cognition into operation in the adept and utile usage of computing machine application, which extremely suited for every function in society.
ICT literacy, in bulk of its definitions, contains a dislocation of information and accomplishments of a computing machine literate individual. The definitions normally are categorised in such a manner that measuring and rating are made possible. Computer attitudes, computing machine applications, computing machine systems and its scheduling are the four critical basicss of computing machine literacy which were highlighted by Simonson et Al. ( 1987 ) .
Despite the fact that the four basicss, as presently viewed, are still in attending in ICT literacy, authors have encouraged to more practical and purposeful description of ICT literacy. Since engineering has progressed deeply, descriptions are advanced analogues to the development of engineering. Furthermore, the rapid change of engineering, together with the survey ‘s clip frame would intend that aims had to be independent of clip every bit much as possible.
Stephens K.K, ( 2007 ) cited Walton et Al survey about the ICT accomplishments function and employment in the position of Central Asiatic state in Kazakhstan which indicate the benefit of ICT accomplishments can acquire a better wage and income.
Many different facets of penetration and sentiment about computing machine literacy have been focused on from the surveies that have been made in the past two decennaries. Surely, as Oliver, R and Towers, S. ( No day of the month ) stated, undeniably infinite attempts have been located to find issues related to computing machine literacy. One attempt has been carried frontward in specifying set of accomplishments as to do the description of a computing machine literate individual more efficient. Furthermore, developing appraisal tools to measure degrees of computing machine accomplishments have been stressed. This is non an easy occupation as there has been an addition in the usage of ICT in workplace demands for literacy. Another attempt given by Oliver, R. and Towers, S. ( No day of the month ) is the survey carried out on comparings made between computing machine literacy degrees and attitudes towards computing machines with different groups of people, based on gender, ethnicity or socio-economic factors.
6.6 ICT Use
“ Executive theoretical account ” liberty is one of the particular and positive correlativities to organizational features with the usage of ICT, aboard with the duties of the direction, team-works, meetings ‘ engagements and distant communicating. These organizational features besides include imaginative characteristics of direct industry businesss quality rules and criterions, communicating between co-workers and use of written communicating.
Muturi, N. ( No day of the month ) has mentioned entree to knowledge of and effectual usage of ICTs are important, peculiarly where entree to the engineering is equated to societal, political, economic and human development.
In the authorities sector it is besides expected to take a leading function in advancing ICT and constructing a regulative government and organizational environment that allows ICT usage to boom. Adoption and execution of ICT in public sector authorities bureaus can pave the manner for ICT diffusion in the state as a whole. The domains of influence for public sector organisations utilizing ICT include ( one ) bettering authorities procedures ( e-Administration ) ; ( two ) connecting citizens ( e-Services ) ; and ( three ) edifice external interactions ( e-Society ) ( Imran. A & A ; Gregor, S, 2005 ) . All of these activities can be referred as the electronic authorities ( e-Government ) .
ICT use besides has the positive and negative unwilled effects. The complexness of ICT usage is non likely to diminish in the close hereafter. Frequently the new ICT emerge through engineering promotion and by uniting bing ICT ( Saetre, A.F, Soernes, J-O, Browning, L.D, Stephens, K.K, 2003 ) .
From the literature reappraisal, we can see how of import the information and communicating engineering in about every facet of our social life every bit good as in the E-Government National Centre.
It is undeniably critical that ICT has a major function in any administrations. With the advancement of engineering, holding ICT literate employees seems to be one of the top-listed demands needed. ICT literacy and use are progressing and doubtless, will be the purposeful and good relevancy in the hereafter.
8.0 Survey Proposal Plan
Read Literature ( Books & A ; Diaries )
Draft Research Question, Aim and Aims
Draft Literature Review
Draft Methodology ( Questionnaires )
Finalise all the bill of exchanges above
Distribution & A ; Collection of Questionnaires
Draft & A ; Review Dissertation Document
Finalise Dissertation Draft Document
Submission of Dissertation Document