The articulatio genus is one of the most complex articulations in the organic structure. Until late. articulatio genus map has non been to the full understood. taking to many cryptic hurts that have been hard to forestall or understand. Research during the last 50 old ages has shown the articulatio genus to be diverse in motion and composite in anatomy. A treatment including the castanetss. musculuss. and nerves that make up articulatio genus will be analyzed ; and motion and map at the articulatio genus will be described. The castanetss that make up the articulatio genus are femur. shinbone. calf bone. and kneecap ( Figure 1 ) .
The thighbone. the big bone in the thigh. is attached to the shinbone by ligaments and capsule ( Knee 2003 ) . The kneecap. or knee cap. drives on the articulatio genus articulation as the articulatio genus bends ( Knee 2003 ) . The calf bone sits sidelong and parallel to the shinbone and is somewhat below the articulatio genus articulation. The ligaments that hold the articulatio genus articulation together are the Articular Capsule. Ligamentum Patellae. Oblique Popliteal. Tibial Collateral. Fibular Collateral. Anterior Cruciate. Posterior Cruciate. Medial and Lateral Menisci. Traverse. and the Coronary ( Knee 2007 ) .
Specifically related to the articulatio genus articulation. between the medial and sidelong tibial tableland and the thighbone is where the semilunar cartilage sit to supply shock absorber and stableness to the joint. The terminals of the thighbone. the top of the shinbone. and the bottom of the kneecap are covered in articular gristle. This gristle is found wheresoever two surfaces come in contact with each other to supply a smooth glide surface for all the gestures possible at the joint ( Basic 2007 ) . The kneecap chiefly maps to increase the flat arm of the quadriceps by increasing the distance of the quadriceps musculus from the axis of articulatio genus extension ( Patello-Femoral 2005 ) .
The kneecap gives a mechanical advantage to the levering system and anteriorly protects the joint from injury. The articulatio genus is capable of traveling in flexure. extension. rotary motion. and side-to-side gestures. The rotational constituent of articulatio genus motion has merely late become good understood in relation to many hurts that occur at the articulatio genus. Originally. the articulatio genus was considered a hinged articulation with lone flexure and extension capablenesss. Research has shown there are three articulations that occur at the articulatio genus: “ . . . wo condyloid articulations ; one between each condyle of the thighbone and the corresponding semilunar cartilage and condyle of the shinbone ; and a 3rd between the kneecap and the thighbone. . . ( Knee 2007 ) . ”
When the articulatio genus is dead set and a pes is on the land. some rotary motion at the distal terminal of the thighbone is possible on the upper terminal of the shinbone. This rotary motion is merely possible in a flexed place because many of the ligaments are non tense. The musculuss that cross the articulatio genus articulation are the quadriceps and hamstrings ( Knee 2003 ) . The quadriceps cross along the forepart of the articulatio genus articulation and the hamstrings cross along the dorsum of the joint.
Chiefly. the quadriceps contract to let the articulatio genus articulation to widen. The hamstrings work in an opposite way to let flexure of the articulatio genus articulation. The quadriceps is made up of four different musculuss: vastus intermedius. vastus lateralis. vastus medialis longus. and the vastus medialis oblique. All four originate at the thighbone and insert into the kneecap to bring forth the gesture involved in extension ( Hislop 1995 ) . The nervus supply for the quadriceps originates in the lumbar spinal column with the femoral nervus. The femoral nervus innervates all caputs of the quadriceps from the L2. L3. and L4 nerve roots ( Hislop 1995 ) .
The hamstring musculus is made up of the bicep femur long and short caputs. the semitendinosus. and the semimembranosus. The long caput of the bicep femur originates from the ischial bone tubercle and attaches at the fibular caput ( Hislop 1995 ) . The short caput of the bicep femur originates from the thighbone and inserts at the sidelong condyle of the shinbone ( Hislop 1995 ) . The semitendinosus originates at the ishial tubercle and inserts at the proximal shaft of the shinbone ( Hislop 1995 ) . The semimembranosus originates at the ishial tubercle and inserts into the median condyle of the shinbone and the sidelong condyle of the thighbone ( Hislop 1995 ) .
The sciatic nervus innervates the hamstring musculuss. The sciatic ( tibial ) nervus originates at L5-S2 of the lumbar spinal column and innervates the semimembranosus. semitendinosus. and the long caput of the bicep femur ( Hislop 1995 ) . The sciatic ( common peroneal ) nervus besides originates at L5-S2 and innervates the short caput of the bicep femur ( Hislop 1995 ) . The articulatio genus articulation is classified as a synovial. hinged-joint based on construction and map. The articular surfaces provide gesture forward and back in one plane. The distal bone. or the shinbone. seldom is in the same plane as the proximal bone. or the thighbone ( Classification 2007 ) .
The articular surfaces are connected together by indirect ligaments. which is the main bond of brotherhood. The articulatio genus is a less typical hinged-joint because the joint allows some side-to-side and rotational motions in certain places. By map. the articulatio genus is considered a synovial articulation that is freely movable. Synovial fluid helps to lubricate the joint and is contained by the bag-like capsular ligament. which holds the full articulation together along with the joint ligaments. The articulatio genus is a extremely complex construction that has been the focal point of much research.
Knee hurts and chronic hurting have been the driving force to understand how the articulatio genus moves and what contributes to jobs within the articulatio genus. At first glimpse. the articulatio genus presents itself as a basic hinge-joint. but with closer self-contemplation. it is clear that little rotational and gliding gestures impact map at the articulatio genus. Muscles from the lumbar spinal column all the manner down to the mortise joint affect the articulatio genus articulation and must be considered in any diagnosing state of affairs. The complexness of the articulatio genus articulation demands to be respected as the articulatio genus is one of the most valuable weight-bearing articulations to worlds.