UNO is an international organisation of about 192 member states of the universe and was founded – instead replaced by the League of Nations some 63 old ages back in October 24, 1945 in San Francisco, California, shortly after World War -II. No uncertainty the calamity, bloodshed, slaughter, hungriness and atomic atrociousnesss by the USA gave dismaying feelings to the states to liberating the universe from the possibility of wars in hereafter. However, its successes and failures in accomplishing this aim are still problematic.
The UNO as stated above is a renewed precursor organic structure of the League of Nations. So before reexamining the UNO ‘s maps, it will be worthwhile to look into the history of the League as the new coevals is non much aware of its function.
TheA United NationsA ( UN ) is anA international organizationA whose stated purposes are easing cooperation inA international jurisprudence, international security, A economic development, A societal advancement, A homo rights, and accomplishment ofA universe peace. The UN was founded in 1945 afterA World War IIA to replace theA League of Nations, to halt wars between states, and to supply a platform for duologue. It contains multiple subordinate organisations to transport out its missions.
There are currentlyA 192 member provinces, including everyA crowned head stateA in the universe but theA Vatican City. From its offices around the universe, the UN and its specialised bureaus decide on substantial and administrative issues in regular meetings held throughout the twelvemonth. The organisation has six chief variety meats: theA General AssemblyA ( the mainA deliberative assembly ) ; theA Security CouncilA ( for make up one’s minding certain declarations for peace and security ) ; theA Economic and Social CouncilA ( for helping in advancing international economic and societal cooperation and development ) ; theA SecretariatA ( for supplying surveies, information, and installations needed by the UN ) ; theA International Court of JusticeA ( the primary judicial organ ) ; and theA United Nations Trusteeship CouncilA ( which is presently inactive ) . Other prominentA UN SystemA bureaus include theA World Health OrganizationA ( WHO ) , theA World Food ProgramA ( WFP ) andA United Nations Children ‘s FundA ( UNICEF ) . The UN ‘s most seeable public figure is theA Secretary-General, currentlyA Ban Ki-moonA of South Korea, who attained the station in 2007. The organisation is financed from assessed and voluntary parts from its member provinces, and has six functionary linguistic communications: A Arabic, A Chinese, A English, A French, A Russian, andA Spanish.
The League was founded after the desolation, slaughter, catastrophe and atrociousnesss of the universe war-I. It was besides an international organisation set up in conformity with the Treaty of Versailles in 1919-20 with merely 58 members.Its major end consisted of disarming, bar of war and settling differences between the states. The forerunner of puting up this organisation was the United States PresidentA Mr. Woodrow Wilson. But surprisingly the Senate of his ain state refused to go its member which was, no uncertainty, a serious blow to the prestigiousness of the League. However, other great powers like the United Kingdom and France remained its members.
It was to carry through the dream of cardinal displacement in the idea from the predating centuries. Unlike the UNO, the League did non hold its ain armed forces and was dependent on the great powers to implement its declarations and peace-making battles. It could non implement its three countenances as envisaged under its compact.
Therefore after, no uncertainty, a few noteworthy successes, the undermentioned failures resulted in its replacing by the United Nations: –
A A A A A A 1. In 1931 Japan invaded Manchuria but no effectual
countenance was imposed on the attacker.
A A A A A A 2. In 1935, Italy attacked Abyssinia but none of the great powers took any notice of it.A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A .
A A A A A A 3. Germany was non allowed to fall in the League in 1919 as it had started the war.
A A A A A A 4. Soviet union was besides denied its rank in 1917 being a
A communist authorities to present fright in Western Europe.
Finally these three most powerful states could non play their positive function in back uping the conference. This kind of predicament has been stated by Mussolini in a sarcastic mode as under:
“ The League is really good when sparrows shout, but no good at all when bird of Joves fallout ”
So the League after the terminal of the First World War was replaced by the UNO in 1945 holding remained in being from 1919 to 1945.
After the closing of the League of Nations, the UNO was established on 24th October, 1945 but its first General Assembly consisting 51 member states was held on 10th January, 1946 in London. One can good measure that the brunts and calamities of both the universe wars gave a bonus to the thought of revamping the organic structure of the League to play more effectual roleA afresh to reconstruct peace and harmoniousness amongst the provinces. This thought was elaborated in the Declarations signed during war clip conferences held in Moscow and Tehran in 1943.
Mr. Franklin D. Roosevelt, the PresidentA of the USA proposed its name as UNITED NATIONS. Its charter was drafted by the authoritiess every bit good as non-government organisations like Lion Club International. To get down with 51 states signed the charter of the United Nations. The charter was subsequently ratified by five lasting members of the Security Council viz: USA, UK, France and China, followed by a bulk of the other 40 signers.
As a consequence of the consentaneous ballots by the U.S. Senate and the House of Representatives, the UNO ‘s Headquarter were made in the United States. Accordingly U.N.Headquarters edifice was constructed in New York metropolis in 1949 and 1950 beside the East River on the land purchased by an 8.5 million dollars contribution from John D. Rockefeller. The land is now considered international district but apart from some diplomatic privileges and unsusceptibilities, the Torahs of the New York metropolis, New York province and the U.S. in general do apply.
The UNO is supported by some other organisations like the Security Council, UNICEF, WHO, UNESCO and a few more to decide struggles and to keep peace in the universe every bit good as to extinguish illiteracy, poorness, hunger andA to heighten regard for human rights.
Pakistan is proud to play its function in the peace-keeping missions of the United Nations. Pakistan became its member on 30th September,1947 i.e. merely after one month ‘s creative activity of it on the universe map as a new state. Since 1960, Pakistan is enthusiastically executing its duty in the U.N.peace-keeping missions with over 10 thousand military personnels and perceivers. Currently Pakistan ‘s engagement in reconstructing peace in Somalia, Sierra Leon, Bosnia, Congo, Liberia and East Temore have been commended non by the UNO but the universe at big. No other state including any Muslim province has been that active to lend thisA kind of function in the United Nations. This speaks of the heroism and vividity of our armed forces on the planetary impact.
The first decennary of the twenty-first century is traveling to finish with both hope and distress co-existing side by side. Peace and development and construct of democracy and equality are still losing in many parts of the universe despite our trumpeted motto of universe acquiring into a planetary small town. No uncertainty the globalisation has drawn states closer and closer with mention to their economic relationship, advanced agencies of communications and regional cooperation etc. But these developments are presenting some dismaying inquiries to the general populace like local wars, revolutions and struggles coming up from clip to clip. The Iraq war and state of affairs between Israel and Palestine witnessing calamities every twenty-four hours. Similarly wars in Africa entangled with poorness and diseases are still go oning.
As a affair of fact after the dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan on 6th and 8th August,1945, the ownership of atomic device by some states created a sense of self-defense and safety. In this manner the dream of peace and harmoniousness in the universe does non look to be converted into the world in the close hereafter.
But we are non that pessimist because the UNO is doubtless a microcosm of the universe and despite so many reserves politically, its function in advancing disarming for a safer hereafter to the descendants can non be denied. In the planetary construct its importance and necessity is deriving momentum twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours. It is now the most acclaimed cosmopolitan representative and important organisation with 192 member states in its nowadays set up and we do trust that it will come on moreA in the clip to come. Those states, who have non become its members so far, should besides come frontward to beef up the UNO in general and the present Secretary General Mr. Ban Ki-moon In peculiar.