Use Of UDDI Services Inside An Organization Information Technology Essay

A service-oriented architecture is an implicit in fundamental law of aggregation of services which support communicating between each other. SOA describes how calculating units such as plans, intermingle so as to enable one unit to put to death a constituent of work on behalf of another unit. Each interaction is independent and freely joined together so that each interaction is autonomous of any other interaction.

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Figure 1

Web service in SOA

A web service is a well-matched engineering which is appropriate for the SOA. It is frequently called as application services. It is a package system designed to keep up an exchange and usage of communicating of a machine to machine over an Internet protocol anchor. Web services which is based on XML criterions has become good known because of its concern betterment processes for ex. Purchase and telling application can pass on with the stock list control to reorder the points, viz. as application to application communicating. Web services can be urbanized as freely united application constituents utilizing any programming linguistic communication, any protocol or any platform. Since services are accessible everyplace, the bringing of concern applications is done more smoothly.


A supplier is defined as a individual or an organisation that offers an appropriate negotiant that to recognize a scrupulous service.


A petitioner is defined as a individual or an organisation that desires to do usage of supplier entity web service.

Web service DESCRIPTION ( WSD )

In a web service description, the processs in the trade of message are acknowledged. The WSD is written in WSDL and characterizes the message layout, informations types, transportation of protocols and transport serialisation formats that shall be used between petitioner agent and supplier agent. The supplier agent may supply information about the message exchange paradigm at one or more web locations.


The semantics of the Web service is concerned chiefly on the public presentation of the service which is a common hope peculiarly to the messages that are sent to it. There is some sort of overall understanding between the petitioner and the supplier which concerns the intent and effects of the interaction which non needfully written or unequivocally discussed. As more the semantically important verbal communicating are described and more resettlement of information from informal semantics to service description, more of the work necessary are accomplished to hold successful interaction to be programmed.

Figure 2


web service & A ; web application

Sometimes we asked ourselves how a web service can separate itself from a web application. In fact the Web service resides over the cyberspace. It is a plan, a subdivision of package which is used tenuously. Internally, it is used by a peculiar application but externally, over the cyberspace, it is used by several applications. Web service has typical interface that describes a certain public presentation.

Web applications are the aggregation of Web pages such as for ex.jsp, HTML files, .aspx and so on. It besides consists of animal trainers, faculties, feasible codification and other files, for ex, Images and constellation files, which can be appealed to a Web waiter. The Web application is located in the web waiter and when a petition is sent by the browser, it is the web pages which are displayed.

WEB services platform elements

The three chief basic platform elements are SOAP, WSDL and UDDI.

SOAP ( Simple Object Access protocol )

The SOAP is a protocol to pass on through the Internet to direct messages. It is a simple and extensile free linguistic communication based on XML and is W3C criterion. It is a free platform and allows acquiring about firewalls.

WSDL ( WEB services description linguistic communication )

Bing an XML based linguistic communication and W3C criterion ; it describes and locates Web service.

UDDI ( UNIVERSAL description, find and integrating )

The UDDI is directory which communicates through SOAP. Its directory is made up of web service interfaces described by WSDL. The directory service shops information about web services where companies register themselves to seek. The UDDI was built into the Microsoft.NET platform

3. WSDL & A ; UDDI

The characteristics of WSDL can be easy distinguished from UDDI as it is an XML linguistic communication. WSDL harmonizes with UDDI criterion to depict the web service interfaces. It is a W3C criterion. It locates web services but UDDI communicates through SOAP.

4. Use of UDDI services inside an organisation

Web services and resourceful plans are easy viewed by UDDI Services. The two chief scenarios inside the organisation for UDDI Services are:

Developer Reuse

In order to be able to plan new applications, developers must recycle UDDI services for web services and resourceful plans.

Dynamic Application Configuration

In order to cognize which services UDDI services is in demand, an application will look into the of import information and will link straight with those services.

5. How UDDI are managed

To pull off the UDDI services, users are assigned to interact by IT decision makers, such as, user, publishing house, coordinator or decision maker, so as to seek and print information. Through the Microsoft Management Console, adept site decision makers control somewhat the UDDI services to configure, to endorse up and reconstruct the database.

6. description of SOAP ( simple object entree protocol )

SOAP is described as an XML based protocol for the exchange of information in the execution of web services in web computing machines. It consists of three parts:

An envelope that describes what is in a message and how to possess it

A set of encoding regulations to show cases of application-defined types

Convention to qualify distant process calls and responses.

Management of a networked computing machine

TheA Microsoft Management ConsoleA ( MMC ) is a component ofA Windows 2000A and subsequently Windows NT-basedA runing systemsA that provides system decision makers and advanced users with a flexible interface through which they may configure and supervise the system.

Making Console tables

1. Snap on the Start Menu ; click Run, type MMC, and so snap OK. Microsoft Management Console opens with an empty console ( or administrative tool ) as shown in Figure 1 below. The empty console has no direction functionality until you add some snap-ins. The MMC bill of fare bids on the bill of fare saloon at the top of the Microsoft Management Console window apply to the full console.

2. Click Console ( under Console1 ) . On the Console Menu, clickA Add/Remove Snap-in. The Add/Remove Snap-in duologue box opens. This lets you enable extensions and configure which snap-ins are in the console file. You can stipulate where the snap-ins should be inserted in theA Snap-in ‘s “ added toA drop-down box. ” Accept the default, Console Root, for this exercising.

3. ClickA Add. This displays the Add Standalone Snap-in duologue box that lists the snap-ins that are installed on your computing machine.

4. From the list of snap-ins, double-clickA Computer ManagementA to open theA Computer ManagementA ace.

5. ClickA Local computerA and choose the cheque box for “ Allow the selected computing machine to be changed when establishing from the bid line. ”

6. ClickA Finish. This returns you to theA Add/Remove Snap-insA duologue box. ClickA Close.

7. Click theA ExtensionsA check. By choosing the cheque boxA Add all extensions, all locally-installed extensions on the computing machine are used. If this cheque box is non selected, so any extension snap-in that is selected is explicitly loaded when the console file is opened on a different computing machine.

8. ClickA OKA to shut the Add/Remove Snap-in duologue box. The Console Root window now has a snap-in, A Computer Management, rooted at the Console Root booklet.

[ Check-out the undermentioned Captures of Print Screen ]

Print Screen 1

Print Screen 2

Print Screen 3

Print Screen 4

Print Screen 5

Print Screen 6

Point to be noted. You have to take what Administrative Tools you immediately intend to utilize.

Coil on the given list of the prompted duologue box.

On the selected snap-in, you are subjected to Click on Add.

Print Screen 7

After you have clicked on Add, the following prompted duologue box asked if wherever you wanted to pull off Local Computer or Another Computer.

As the chief computing machine is I a networked country, hence I have clicked on Another computing machine so I moved my pointer to Browse.

Print Screen 8

Print Screen 9

Print Screen 10

On the chink of Advanced, I search for computing machine connected through Find Now, and so a list of affiliated computing machines will update the duologue box.

Choose the wanted computing machine you would wish to pull off Administrative Tools. And complete the undertaking by chink on OK.

Print Screen 11

Print Screen 12

Print Screen 13

Print Screen 14

Print Screen 15

Remarks about the Evaluation of the Microsoft Management Console ( MMC )

The assignment was based on the ‘Management of a Networked Computer ‘ . Therefore the overall of the rating was based on a networked country, where the handiness of holding entree into another computing machine.

Therefore all the Snap-in could be added, based on what you wanted to pull off.

Common prefigured consoles

The files listed in the tabular array below are preconfigured consoles found in the folderA WindowsSystem32A ( Some are found merely in Windows XP Professional. )

Common Consoles




Manages certifications involved in security


Manages the Indexing Service


The Computer Management Console. It contains a figure of the other consoles as snap-ins


The Device Manager


Disk Defragmenter


Disk Management


Event Viewer for pull offing system logs


Shared Folder Management


Group Policy Editor


Local Users and Groups Manager


Removable Storage Manager


Removable Storage Operator Requests


System Performance Monitor


Attendant Set of Policy. For system decision makers


Security Policy


Manages the many services involved in Windows and besides installed package


Windows Management Instrumentation Service

Another console called Component Services ( comexp.msc ) is located in a different booklet, A WindowsSystem32com , which is non in the standard way. It is normally opened fromA All Programs-Administrative ToolsA orA Control Panel-Performance and Maintenance-Administrative Tools.


First of all, Click on Strart Menu & gt ; Run & gt ; type mmc in the duologue box and chink on Oklahoma

The MicrosoftA managementA consoleA will blink on screen.

On the Console1 check, Click on File & gt ; Add/Remove Snap-in

The Add/Remove Snap-in will motivate on screen.

On the Standalone Tab

Click on the Add button, the Add Standalone Snap-in will flick.

Scroll down and take Servicess in the Snap-in content and Add.

The Service duologue box prompts, if the user wants to utilize Servicess on the Local computing machine or on Another computing machine.

As I wanted to mange on the Local computing machine, I clicked on Coating

As a presentation, I wanted to mange the Automatic Updates.

Right Click on Automatic Updates & gt ; Properties

Here the case was presented on base how to pull off such services by their belongingss.

Each Service got their ain constellations, here every service has different subdivision ; General, Log On, Recovery, and Dependences.

Therefore you can pull strings them to your ain cognition base.


Using MMC, chink on File & gt ; Add/Remove Snap-in

On Add/Remove Snap-in duologue box chink on Add,

Select ActiveX Control and chink on Add

The Insert ActiveX Control Wizard will look on screen,

Click on Next

On Control Categories choose All Classs

Then Scroll down for System Monitor Control

Select System Monitor Control and snap on Following and Finish the Wizard.

Near the Add Standalone Snap-in duologue box.

Pull offing the monitoring of VIRTUALXP-81400


Using MMC, chink on File & gt ; Add/Remove Snap-in

On Add/Remove Snap-in duologue box chink on Add,

Choice Disk Management and chink on Add,

And Complete it by choosing your mark computing machine

Near the Add Standalone Snap-in duologue box.


Using MMC, chink on File & gt ; Add/Remove Snap-in

On Add/Remove Snap-in duologue box chink on Add,

Select Device Manager and chink on Add,

And Complete it by choosing your mark computing machine

Near the Add Standalone Snap-in duologue box.

Advanced Mode of Interpretation

Alternate 1: Right-click My Computer so choose Properties

Choose the Hardware check

Click the Device Manager button

Alternate 2: Start – & gt ; Run – & gt ; devmgmt.msc – & gt ; OK

Alternate 3: Type “ devmgmt.msc ” into the Command Prompt

Alternate 4: Device Manager is portion of Computer Management, which besides includes Event Viewer, Services Manager, Disk Management and many other things. Right-Click My Computer so select Manage to get down Computer Management, or invoke compmgmt.msc, or launch it via the cutoff in Control Panel, Administrative Tools.

Alternate 5: Imperativeness and keep down the Windows key and imperativeness the Pause/Break key.

Alternate 6: Make a batch file ( .bat ) to run Device Manager. A one line entry of devmgmt.msc into an ANSI text file with the extension ( .bat ) suffices. However you can besides raise case scenes, such as exposing non-present devices, by adding an extra first bid line

set devmgr_show_nonpresent_devices=1

for an overall construction like this:

set devmgr_show_nonpresent_devices=1

Alternate 7: Alternatively of a batch file, merely make a cutoff taking to devmgmt.msc

Using the Device Manager, the list of hardware can be seen. The undermentioned, name the version of installed drivers, unknown devices, and constellation of scenes to its demand.


Using MMC, chink on File & gt ; Add/Remove Snap-in

On Add/Remove Snap-in duologue box chink on Add,

Select Component Services and snap on Add,

And Complete it by choosing your mark computing machine

Near the Add Standalone Snap-in duologue box

With Component Services, decision makers can deploy and administrate Component Services applications through a graphical user interface or automatize administrative undertakings by utilizing a scripting or scheduling linguistic communication. Software developers can utilize Component Services to visually configure everyday constituent and application behaviour, such as security and engagement in minutess, and to incorporate constituents into Component Services applications.

Open Component Services.


Using MMC, chink on File & gt ; Add/Remove Snap-in

On Add/Remove Snap-in duologue box chink on Add,

Select Local Users and Groups and chink on Add,

And Complete it by choosing your mark computing machine

Near the Add Standalone Snap-in duologue box.

The Local Users and Groups snap-in allows you to take the undermentioned actions on User and Group objects on the local Windows XP system:

Position: A List the bing Users and Groups available on the local system.

Attention deficit disorder: A Create new User and Group objects on the local system.

Edit: A Change properties of bing User and Group objects on the local system.

Delete: A Remove User and Group objects from the local system.

To see a listing of available groups on the local system from within the Computer Management Console, follow these stairss:

Expand the Local Users and Groups object.

Choose the Groups object in the left window glass. A listing of available Groups will look in the right window glass of the console.

To see a User object listing, merely highlight the Users object in the left window glass of the console.

To add local Users:

Choose the User object.

Right-click within the User list in the right window glass and choice New User.

In the duologue box that appears, come in a Name and Username for the object and click Next.

Specify and corroborate a watchword for the User Account Object.

On the Password screen, you will besides necessitate to configure the followers options for the Accounts watchword:

User Must Change Password At Next Logon: A This prompts the user to put a new watchword the following clip they log on to the history.

User Can non Change Password: A The user can non alter the watchword for the history.

Password Never Expires: A The watchword for this history will ne’er run out.

Account Is Disabled: A The history is non active and can non be used to log on to Windows.

Note: A If you select the User Must Change Password at Next Logon option, the User Can non Change Password and Password Never Expires options become unavailable until after the following history logon.

After choosing Password and other options as listed above, click the Create button to make the user history.

Making local groups

The best manner to make a group history from the Computer Management Console is by choosing the Groups object in the left window glass and right-clicking the list in the right window glass to choose New Group. This will bring forth a duologue box inquiring you to come in a name and a description for the group. After you enter the name and description, click the Add button at the underside of the duologue box in order to choose members for the new group. When you have all of the members assigned, click OK in the choice box and so snap Create in the New Group dialog box.

Editing and canceling local users and groups

To redact a user or group object, follow these stairss:

Choice Users or Groups in the left window glass of the Computer Management Console.

Right-click the object you wish to redact.

Choice Properties from the context bill of fare.

Modify the necessary belongingss for the object, so click OK.

You can besides redact a user or group object by double-clicking it in the bing list.

To cancel an bing user or group object, follow these stairss:

Choice Users or Groups in the left window glass of the Computer Management Console.

In the right window glass of the console, right-click the User or Group object you wish to cancel.

Select Delete from the context bill of fare. When asked if you are certain you wish to cancel this object, choice Yes.

Note: A When accessing the Computer Management Console, you canA link remotely to other systemsA to see their resources.


Using MMC, chink on File & gt ; Add/Remove Snap-in

On Add/Remove Snap-in duologue box chink on Add,

Choice Performance Logs and Alerts and chink on Add,

And Complete it by choosing your mark computing machine

Near the Add Standalone Snap-in duologue box

Using Counter Logs

By right chink on the System Overview Properties,

The Properties defines where the log file is archived.

Log can be classified as a calendar, Scheduled and even to Command and besides to put to death an application ( .exe file ) .

Trace logs gaining control information about the operating environment when constituent codification fails to run as intended. These logs are in the English linguistic communication merely.

With Alerts Log,

Logs can be recorded within seconds. The user must apportion its bounds, the clip can be agenda. The following options apply to its constellations send a web message and even run a plan.


Travel to ‘Control Panel ‘ , chink on ‘Administrative Tools ‘ .

We can see that IIS is non installed on the computing machine.

Click Start, chink Control Panel, and click Add or Remove Programs.

Click Add/Remove Windows Components. The Windows Components Wizard appears.

Follow the on-screen instructions to put in IIS.

Click on the cheque box to put in IIS and chink on ‘Next ‘ button

As Windows requires some needful files, therefore the Files Needed duologue box flash to screen. The user requires the Installation Kit.

Therefore, [ : i386 ] Directory should be used.

Installation in processaˆ¦

Waiting for a piece, the installing is about to finish,

After the installing, I removed my Windows XP Service Pack Compact Disc, and I reboot my system for proper and complete installing, so that all the services will work without bugs.

After the system was boot, I go to Administrative Tools to look into wherever the IIS was installed or non.

A cutoff of the plan will be added to the Administrative Tools directory.


Pinging an Information science

Imperativeness Windows Key + R & gt ; type cmd & gt ; OK

Type on the bid prompt, ipconfig & gt ; Enter

The List of Internet Patrocol will be displayed

Choose you wanted IP from the received information, and ping it by,

Type on the bid prompt, PING

The listed Statistics will be displayed and therefore the values will find the distance of the connexion and so on.


Type on the bid prompt, PING LAB3 PC002

Here the Information about the connexion.

Show ‘Start ‘ and ‘Stop ‘ for IIS

The Start and Stop can be done by right chink on the wanted computing machine and action on it.

Making the Start and Stop of the IIS.

Pull offing Web Sites and Virtual Mail Server.

Show IIS plants

Using Mozilla Firefox to look into wherever the browser can entree the waiter.


Domain Name system ( DNS )

The DNS is a hierarchal cyberspace service that translates domain names into IP references. The Internet is based on IP references and is easy remembered as at that place in alphabetical order. Every clip a sphere name is used, the DNS translates them into IP references, for illustration can go On a TCPIP based web, DNS allocates friendly names so that it is easier to follow resources and computing machines.

Internet Protocol ( IP ) reference

IP references are 32 spots numeral reference such as for illustration, which identifies either each the receiving system or the transmitter about the information that is sent in packages across Internet.

The IP reference has two parts:

identifier of a peculiar web on cyberspace

identifier on a peculiar waiter within the web.

hypertext transfer protocol: //, ,sid8_gci212381,00.html

IP version 4 references

IPv4 uses 8 spots to descry the web and 24 spots for the terminal host. For category reference system

Figure 3

DNS name waiter

A DNS name waiter is a waiter that shops the DNS records, such as reference ( A ) records, name waiter ( NS ) records, and mail money changer ( MX ) records for a sphere name and responds with replies to questions against its database.


The DNS resolver is the client side of the DNS. To originate and to sequence questions is the cardinal responsibility of the resolver for ex, change overing sphere name into IP reference.

A DNS question may be categorized ;

AA non-recursive question

The DNS supplies a record to the sphere. It is independent and sometimes it provides merely a portion of the result.

AA recursive queryA

The DNS waiter will answer to the question in every regard and the waiters will non go on the recursive questions.

DNS Infrastructure

For a DNS work out, a DNS substructure shall be created. Therefore it is divided into two major parts:

Logical hierarchy


Physical hierarchy

Figure 5

Fully qualified sphere name ( FQDN )

The FQDN is consists of a host name and a sphere name. For the Internet, it is a complete sphere name, for ex,, World Wide Web is the hostname and the host is found in the sphere You shall ever bespeak the FQDN to link a host otherwise the DNS waiter will non find the hostname to its IP reference. Then you will non have a login prompt.

Network ID

To be able to acknowledge the subnet in which a host is held on, a web ID is used, which is portion of a TCP/IP reference. The subnet mask and the IP reference of the computing machine determine the subnet in which the computing machine is on. This subnet reference is the commencement portion of the computing machines IP reference which is the same as the web ID. When the subnet mask is set up, the most of import spots are 1 which specifies the web reference and the remainder is 0s. The lower portion of the reference represents the host reference. The web ID is where portion of the IP reference and portion of the subnet mask lucifers when the spots are set to 1.

Subnet mask

An IP reference has two parts ; the web reference and the host reference. For ex, see as the IP reference for a category B web. The first two Numberss ( 160.214 ) will be the Class B web reference and the other two Numberss ( 016.008 ) will stand for a peculiar host on the web. Subnet mask provides us with all information that we need to measure the web and the host spots of address easy. In the summation, the subnet mask allows easy computation and to verify if IP references are on the same subnet or non.

Common exposures of DNS


TCP/IP packages are created by utilizing another individual IP reference. Routers will merely utilize the terminal IP reference in order to direct packages throughout the cyberspace. When distorting the beginning IP reference, the responses are misdirected. Therefore a normal web connexion will non be able to be produced. IP spoofing is really of import for many onslaughts and do non necessitate reactions.

Cache corruptness

Cache corruptness occurs whenever you were seeking to entree a site, the pages do non lade suitably, and so you have to make F5 to review it for the page to burden.

Zone transportations

When the host name waiter permits zone transportations to copy zone information between maestro and a slave DNS waiter, the topic is activated, that is the DNS may direct us to an illicit disclosure of information. If of all time zone transportations do non restrict to back slave waiters merely, a distant enemy may unveil antiphonal confidential web information.

Dynamic updates

It means maintaining new records into the DNS when running without redacting zone files. The exposure is chiefly found in the waiters that are Masterss.

steps to be taken to procure DNS

utilize DNS forwarders

apply caching-only DNS waiters

utilize DNS advertizers

utilize DNS resolvers

support DNS from cache pollution

allow DDNS for secure connexions merely

immobilise zone transportations

utilize firewalls to command DNS entree

set entree controls on DNS register entries

set entree controls on DNS file system entries


Class of IP references between 1000 to 1500 computing machines

For an organisation holding a web of between 1000 to 1500 computing machines, the category B of IP references will be used. The denary figure shall be from 128 to 191 if the binary figure starts with 10. The figure is reserved for loopback, which means that it tests package without torturing itself whether the drivers or hardware are broken or corrupted. The loopback, nevertheless, its interface has no connexion with hardware or physically linked to a web.

Using hypertext transfer protocol: // ( or similar web site ) , look into that the sphere name you desire is available ( presuming that it would be registered )

Enter the name you want as sphere name and chink on hunt.

In the above figure, you will detect that the sphere name is available. Then chink on attention deficit disorder to chart.

Now you will hold two options to be able to register, either public or private but private is recommended. Click on continue.

There besides it provides us with the options of either you want to add basic hosting or no, if you do non accept. Then snap on continue after taking.

The figure above shows different option in order to procure the sphere name and so on. After you have chosen, chink on attention deficit disorder to haul and it will automatically update the sum on the shopping cart. Then click continue to transport frontward.

In order to hold entree to the wanted sphere, the user must make full in the field by accepting the understanding ( Policy of the Website ) .

Finally the history is created. You can reexamine and update your order.

















Server DHCP

Network no

No of computing machines



100 computing machines to


100 computing machines to


100 computing machines to


100 computing machines to


100 computing machines to


100 computing machines to


100 computing machines to


100 computing machines to


100 computing machines to


100 computing machines to


100 computing machines to


100 computing machines to


100 computing machines to


100 computing machines to


100 computing machines to

Table 1

The above tabular array shows the description of each subnets and the scope of IP references.


No of Computers





In section one, the web figure will stay the same but the host figure will alter as each one shall hold a alone reference. The 1 is the section and the two is the computing machine figure. Since there are 100 computing machines, the last host figure will be 102.



In the section two, it will be the same as above, merely that this clip, the host figure will get down from 2 which is the section and the last decimals is the figure of computing machines in all in the room.



Automation is the usage of computing machines through the replacing of employees ; command a punctilious system in order to increase consistence and effectivity. For illustration, a maker utilizing robotics lines to bring forth its merchandises.

SEARCH engine

A hunt engine gathers and classifies information over the Internet. Whenever you enter what you want to seek, the engine provides links to content that matches what you want. In fact a hunt engine sends a spider to bring as many paperss as possible. Afterwards an indexer reads the paperss and creates an index based on the words. A properness algorithm is used to make indices so that important consequences appeared for each probe.

WWW automaton

World Wide Web automatons besides known as cyberspace automatons are package applications that perform repeating and automatic undertakings in the cyberspace at a higher velocity more than a human capacity. The most popular and normally used internet bots is the web spidering for web waiter analysis and assemblage of informations files. The bot is supposed to obey the regulations of the spidering of the waiter, which can hold a file called robots.txt.

utilizations of automatons and hunt engine

Search engines use automatons to sort and hive away all web sites. Automatons are besides used by web Masterss to observe and right mistakes in beginning codification. Spammers besides use them to scan electronic mail references.

reading of the following “ /robots.txt ” file

User-agent: *

Disallow: cgi-bin

Disallow: Naj

All automatons shall be excluded from portion of the waiter. It disallows all hunt engines and automatons from creeping choice directories and pages.

reading “ /robots.txt ” file

User-agent: *


To let all automatons complete entree or merely make an empty “ /robots.txt ” file or you merely do non utilize it at all.


hypertext transfer protocol: //

hypertext transfer protocol: //

hypertext transfer protocol: // # whatis

hypertext transfer protocol: //

hypertext transfer protocol: //

hypertext transfer protocol: //, ,sid8_gci212381,00.html

hypertext transfer protocol: //

hypertext transfer protocol: // ( DNS )

hypertext transfer protocol: //

hypertext transfer protocol: //

hypertext transfer protocol: //

hypertext transfer protocol: //

hypertext transfer protocol: // ? p=1775

hypertext transfer protocol: //

hypertext transfer protocol: //