To Design and Develop a Line Following Robot. The aim is to plan a working circuit and build a Line Following Robot which is cost effectual and besides to guarantee that the circuit uses basic constituents that have been used in class of college.
The aim of this undertaking is to plan and developA a line following automaton that will be capable of tracking a line and maneuvering the organic structure of the automaton over the line at all times. Line following automaton is designed maintaining in head the cost restraints and simpleness.
What is robotics?
A automaton by definition is “ an automatic1device that performs maps usually ascribed to1humans or1machine1in the signifier of a human. “ When we put it in simple words we can state that a automaton is an automatically guided machine capable of executing undertakings on their ain. Many facets of robotics involves unreal intelligence, automatons are involved with many facets concerned with worlds for illustration vision, touch, motion, ability to separate between objects etc. Artificial Intelligence can be defined as the ability of a computing machine to execute undertakings that normally is considered to necessitate intelligence.
The Robotics Institute of America ( RIA ) uses a broader definition: a automaton is a “ re-programmable multi-functional operator designed to travel stuffs, parts, tools, or specialised devices through variable programmed gestures for the public presentation of a assortment of undertakings. ”
The RIA subdivides automatons into four categories:
Devicess that manipulate objects with manual control.
Automated devices that manipulate objects with preset rhythms.
Programmable and servo-controlled automatons with uninterrupted point-to-point flights.
Automatons that get information from the environment and travel intelligently in response.
The word automaton foremost appeared in print in the 1920 drama R.U.R. ( Rossum ‘s Universal Robots ) by Karl Kapek, a Czechoslovakian dramatist. Robota is Czechoslovakian for worker or helot ( provincial ) . Typical of early scientific discipline fiction, the automatons take over and kill off the human race.
1954: The first programmable automaton is designed by George Devol, who coins the term Universal Automation. He subsequently shortens this to Unimation, which becomes the name of the first automaton company ( 1962 ) .
Isaac Asimov popularized the term robotics through many science-fiction novels and short narratives. Asimov is a visionary who envisioned in the 1930 ‘s the positronic encephalon for commanding automatons ; this pre-dated digital computing machines by a twosome of decennaries. Unlike earlier automatons in scientific discipline fiction, automatons do non endanger worlds since Asimov invented the three Torahs of robotics, nevertheless the zeroth jurisprudence is non cardinal:
Law Zeroth: A automaton may non wound humanity, or, through inactivity, allow humanity to come to harm.
Law One: A automaton may non wound a human being, or, through inactivity, let a human being to come to harm, unless this would go against a higher order jurisprudence.
Law Two: A automaton must obey orders given it by human existences, except where such orders would conflict with a higher order jurisprudence.
Law Three: A automaton must protect its ain being every bit long as such protection does non conflict with a higher order jurisprudence.
aˆ? Joseph Engleberger and George Devoe were the male parents of industrial automatons. Their company, Unimation, built the first industrial automaton, the PUMA ( Programmable Universal Manipulator Arm, a ulterior version shown below ) , in 1961.
eightiess: The automaton industry enters a stage of rapid growing. Many establishments introduce plans and classs in robotics. Roboticss classs are spread across mechanical technology, electrical technology, and computing machine scientific discipline sections.
2. Types and Classification of automatons
Roboticss in general is a really big field diversifying into many other Fieldss in bend. Roboticss can be classified as given below
Fig. 2.1 Robotic arm
The robotic arm is a programmable automaton operator capable of executing undertakings similar to that of the human arm. The links of the arm are connected by articulations that enable to execute either rotational gesture or translational supplanting.
Wheeled Mobile Robots
Fig. 2.2 Wheeled Mobile automaton
Mobile automatons are the automatons that move to any given environment and are non fixed to any one location. Mobile automatons may be classified based on the environment in which they travel and the device they use for traveling.
Fig. 2.3 Four legged automaton
The category of automatons is those that use legs instead than wheels for traveling. They are considered to be stable even in uneven terrain. They are a slightly of a recent innovation. Most successful legged automatons have be those with 4 or 6 legs.
Fig. 2.4 Underwater automaton
Underwater automatons are independent submerged vehicles ( AUVs ) . They are normally known as remote-controlled submerged vehicles in the military and work on specified devices like propellors for propulsion and rudders for commanding the way of travel under the H2O ‘s surface.
Fig. 2.5 Quad-rotor winging automaton
Automatons those are capable of flight. The winging automatons have been built copying the manner of the insects and bird. There is presently research being held to build independent flight automatons.
Artificial Intelligence ( AI ) is the intelligence of the machines and subdivision of computing machine
Science that aims to make such intelligence.AI can besides be said to be “ the survey and design of intelligent agents capable of analyzing the environment and taking determinations in order to maximise the opportunities of success.
Fig. 2.6 Industrial automaton
Automation is the usage of control systems in concert with other applications of IT to command industrial machinery and processes thereby cut downing the demand for human intercession. Robotic have been widely used in this field to rush up the procedure and besides minimising the hazard of any mistake.
3. Programing Languages
The plan embedded in any automaton can be defined as the set of bids that describes the working of the automaton. There has been much promotion in the field of scheduling, with newer and easy to utilize packages available for automaton scheduling. Java, C++ and Python are the most common of the scheduling linguistic communications used. These linguistic communications are simple, object-oriented, secure and flexible. Java provides a familiar working environment to many coders. C++ on the other manus is one of the earliest scheduling linguistic communications introduced. It is a widely used multi-level scheduling linguistic communication and is backbone to the package industry. Some of its application domains include systems package, application package, device drivers, embedded package, high public presentation waiter and client applications, and amusement package such as video games.
Programing in robotics has been made simpler with the aid of robot application packages that are made to do programming easy. Applications include bid and control and tasking package. Some robotics package undertakings are ARIA Robot API libraries, Microsoft Robotics Studio, Python Robotics, roboDNA and Webots.
These plans are so fed into the programmable device of the automaton. The programmable constituents have evolved a great trade from the usage of EPROM to the usage of hi-tech microcontrollers. The microcontrollers have been a great find since they remove the demand for reprogramming a new EPROM in the instance of any mistake in the codification. The microcontrollers are fitted with a socket that allows easy transportation of the codification into the accountant.
A 4. Line Following Robot
What is a Line Following Robots?
Fig.4.1 a Line Following Robot
A Line Following Robot is a automaton capable of tracking and following a line drawn on a surface.A The way can be a seeable like a black line on a white surface ( or vice-versa ) or it can be unseeable like a magnetic field. The automaton uses basic centripetal design and robot control systems in the signifier of an independent automaton which must follow a line. The robot utilizations two exposure interrupters which will assist separate between black and white surface by projecting infrared beams.
Why construct a Line Following Robot?
Based on the simpleness and design of the line following automaton, it is possible to construct a basic detection system that I capable of tracking a line and remaining on class while invariably rectifying its errors. This makes a simple yet effectual closed feedback loop scenario.
The automaton has been designed sing cost in head. The line following automaton is made with minimal figure of constituents and yet to be effectual in its intent.
The line following automaton is a simple design that consists of the undermentioned three units
Feeling Unit of measurement
Processing or Logic Unit
Mechanical Body for the automaton.
The undermentioned diagram is the block diagram representation of the line following automaton.
Fig.4.2 Block diagram representation.
4.1 Feeling Unit of measurement
The automaton uses optical detectors for the intent of pilotage over the line. The feeling unit of the line follower consists of a brace of exposure interrupters. The exposure interrupters are nil but a brace of infrared light breathing rectifying tube.
Infrared radiation is an electromagnetic radiation that belongs to the 1 and 430THz frequence scope. Infrared imagination is used extensively in many field these yearss from military to civil intents. These applications may include mark sensing, gesture detector, alarm systems etc.
The infrared emitter is a light breathing rectifying tube made of Ga arsenide which emits near infrared energy radiation. This besides acts as a transistor whose base electromotive force is based on the sum of light hitting it. The transistor and receiving system have a matched infrared scope. The distance between the device and the brooding surface is maintained less for maximal efficiency. The features of a good detector are to hold close zero opposition in the presence of visible radiation and a really big opposition in the absence of visible radiation. This belongings of the rectifying tube can be used as possible splitter.
Therefore when the rectifying tube is blocked that is does non have any light so the end product will be low. The followers is a graphical representation of the above mentioned working.
When infrared beams received by the IR receiving system
Fig. 4.1.1 Illustration of the current end product from IR_RX
A really interesting characteristic of the LED is the ability to act as a sender and emitter. Therefore, one of them works as a sender and the other Acts of the Apostless as a receiving system. The figure shown below is a representation of the infrared detection system.
Fig. 4.1.2 the infrared LEDs in the detection unit.
We can see from the above figure the operation of the infrared LEDs. The sender LED transmits infrared beams onto the surface and in the absence of the black tape the beams are reflected back which is so received by the receiving system LED. In the presence of the tape the infrared beams are absorbed, we know that a black surface absorbs infrared beams and therefore the receiving system aerial does non have any signal from the surface.
The IR sender and receiving system maps are given below.
-Keyboard matrix scanning and anti-bouncing ( when a key is stroked ) .
-Modulation frequence used for unsusceptibility against environmental.
-IR LED driver ( normally a transistor ) .
-Microprocessor that will encode the information ( or decipherer ) .
Therefore depending on the signal received by the receiving system IR LED, the treating unit of the automaton controls the two DC motors, which are used to impel the automaton.
4.2 The Logic Unit.
The line follower automaton uses a really easy to understand circuit design with minimal constituents. The encephalon of the line follower automaton consists of nil more than a set of transistors which are connected to the motor that drives the automaton. Transistors are cardinal portion of all modern electronic devices. A transistor is a semiconducting material device that is used as an amplifier or a switch in a circuit. It consists of three terminuss for connexion with the external circuit. The transistors are similar to two PN junctions back to endorse. The transistors used are NPN and PNP transistors. Their basic building and chemical intervention is implied by their names, NPN and PNP. A NPN transistor is formed by presenting a thin part of P-type stuff between two parts of N-type stuff and a PNP transistor is formed by presenting a thin part of N-type stuff between two parts of P-type stuff. The N and P parts are formed by doping the semiconducting material with different elements. We can distinguish the transistor graphically with the aid of the pointer, it is indicating inwards for a PNP and outwards for a NPN. The three terminuss that are mentioned earlier are viz. Emitter, Base and Collector. Transistors work in such a manner, the signal through one brace of the terminuss can be altering the signal of the other brace.
The basic representations of the two types are given below.
Fig. 4.2.1 NPN and PNP Transistors
These transistors can run in two ways viz. amplifier and switch. The transistor works as an amplifier when it is operated in the additive part that is between the cut off and impregnation part. The impregnation part refers to both junctions of the transistors being frontward biased and facilitates high current conductivity from the emitter to the aggregator junction. This can be referred to as a positive logic or a closed switch. The cut off part, the biasing conditions are opposite to that of the impregnation status. There is really small current flow in this part thereby moving as an unfastened switch. For a switch application the transistor is driven between cutoff and impregnation parts.
5. PCB and Circuit Diagram
The line follower automaton that is designed here is from basic transistor constituents and resistances. The PCB comprises of all the devices etched into it. The constituents used are listed below.
Infrared Transmitter and Receiver ( referred to as IR TX and IR RX severally )
Transistors – NPN ( 8050 ) and PNP ( 8550 )
Diode ( 1N4001 )
The above mentioned parts represent the PCB. The figure below is the PCB used.
Fig 5.1 the PCB for the Line Follower Robot
The PCB is besides accompanied with an On / Off switch. /there are wholly three pins available, two of those for the DC motors and the other for the electromotive force beginning i.e. the battery. The PCB is 8.5 ten 4.5 ( centimeter ) unit. In the Centre near to the switch are two screw pins so that it can be mounted on to any surface. A 3V battery battalion is used in order to power the automaton.
The figure below is the circuit diagram for both the left and the right motor.
Fig 5.2 the circuit diagram for the right motor control
Fig 5.3 the circuit diagram for the left motor control
The following few paragraphs trade with the working of the above given circuit diagram. One of the circuit diagrams is taken into consideration i.e. the motor control for the right motor. In this circuit I have made usage of two PNP transistors and a NPN transistor. The Line Follower Robot when it goes over the black line, the infrared beams is non received by the IR_RX of the PCB. This leads to a low signal to the first transistor Q1 therefore really small current to the base of the transistor. Therefore we can see the transistor to be working in cut off part hence really minimum addition on the input signal and the motor runs in normal velocity.
In the instance when the line bends towards the right so the left brace of the detectors are exposed to bright surface visible radiation. The receiving system hence gets the reflected beams, therefore it operates at a higher potency that the other motor thereby steering the motor towards the right. This similar working can be used for the other motor control. It is to be ensured that the burden resistances are added to guarantee that the transistor works in the needed operating point i.e. operating in the right current scope.
A rectifying tube 1N4001 is placed along with the motor. This rectifying tube is connected backwards. We know that the rectifying tubes allow easy flow of electric current. This rectifying tube here acts as a protection rectifying tube to the motor, therefore when current flow through the rectifying tube the opportunity of the circuit being damaged due to high electromotive force spike is avoided. The circuitry of the switch which switches on the device is given below.
Fig 5.4 Circuit Diagram stand foring the switch control
6. Hardware Components
The organic structure of the Line Following Robot is made of composition board. Different elements were used to look into the compatibility with the automaton. Materials like steel and wood were used to look into but the automaton failed to travel fleetly. Therefore composition board was found to be lighter that the above two and therefore were able to transport the automaton with easiness. The organic structure is similar to a auto in form and has allocations for wheels and the detectors at the underside.
The Line Follower Robot is driven with the aid of two DC motors. The DC motor plants by change overing electric power into mechanical work that is revolving the shaft. The current is forced through the spiral and hence bring forthing revolving magnetic field that spins the shaft. The motor consists of a steel can that forms the organic structure, an axle, cap and two battery leads. The motor in bend is connected to two plastic wheels through a set of cogwheels. The cogwheels were used in order to reassign the rotational gesture from a perpendicular to an horizontal place since the motors were placed in such a manner to do the automaton compact. The figure of dentitions on the cogwheel was determined utilizing the cogwheel ‘s ratio. The
Gear ‘s ratio states that the figure of dentitions on two cogwheels that are meshed along the perimeter of the two. All the cogwheels connected have the same sum of dentition in order for optimal public presentation. The pinion cogwheel has been attached to the motor and so through other cogwheels to the motor. This is the basic map of the cogwheel.
Fig 6.1 a simple DC motor
The Line Follower Robot uses two plastic wheels. The motor through a set of cogwheels and a shaft is connected to the wheels.
Fig 6.2 Plastic Wheels
The wheels used are light weight and thin. They fit in to the organic structure of the automaton with easiness.
Here the plastic wheels have a gum elastic tubing environing them. The gum elastic tubing is to cut down the clash.
7. Working of the Line Follower Robot
The nomadic line follower automaton is a sort of automaton with merely a particular undertaking which is to follow a line. The line is made of a black tape which is about 8mm broad. The automaton uses the rule of distinguishing the line with the ambient visible radiation and therefore voyaging its manner over the line. The distinction procedure is done with the aid of a brace of infrared senders and receiving systems. The basic working of this brace is to breathe infrared beams which will so be received by RX after hitting the surface ( in the instance of the surrounding ) . When the beams hit the black tape, the beams are non reflected due to the belongings of black colour to absorb infrared beams. The figure below represents the mentioned.
Fig 7.1 Sensors tracking the line
Here we have made usage of two brace of feeling unit S1 and S2. These two will continuously direct infrared beams that are picked and sent into the treating unit of the automaton. Hence the automaton is being steered continuously.
Fig 7.2 Illustration of the TX & A ; RX brace
The above image gives a just illustration of the working of the line feeling division of the Line Following Robot. We make usage of a 8mm tape and the TX and RX brace is separated by a distance of 18mm. The distance between the detectors or exposure interrupters and the land is kept minimum to avoid the hinderance of ambient visible radiation which can harm the working of the automaton. The signal received by this brace is used in distinguishing the input signal to the transistors and therefore changing the velocity of the motors. This enables the automaton to turn. This can be explained as, when the left wheel is revolving at a higher velocity that the right so the automaton turns right and vice-versa. The working is pictorially depicted below.
Fig 7.3 Differential Drive Steering
This method is known as differential thrust maneuvering method. In this method we make utilizations of two independent motors fixed at the left and right terminal of the robot human body. Therefore we slow down the velocity of the right motor when the line bends towards the right, thereby enabling the automaton to travel right. This is an effectual yet simple method to steer the automaton.
8. Assembly and Testing of the Robot
The Line Follower Robots consists of really few parts and really easy to construct at place. The basic tools required are cutting plyerss, screw drivers, the parts that constitute to the organic structure of the automaton, scissors, pen knife etc. Initially the printed circuit board that was made for the line follower automaton was tested. It had to be tested for the motor control along with the heating up of the transistors and rectifying tubes. Once this was done, we checked each motor individually in order to look into if both of them were working without any fuss. Initially the motor which was to be allotted to the left wheel was non working. This had lead to warming of the NPN transistor. The motor had to be replaced with a similar 1 in order to guarantee proper operation of the device. The new motor worked decently but was really loud.
The assembly of the line follower automaton started off with the assembly of the motor on to a saddle horse. Subsequently the pinion cogwheel was fixed to a motor so two more cogwheels were attached horizontally to the motor. A unit of ammunition shaft was inserted into the cogwheels and the wheel of the line follower automaton was mounted on to it. Similarly the other side of the automaton was constructed. Then both these parts were fixed side by side with the aid of a few prison guards. Once this was completed the battery battalion was to be mounted to the dorsum of the Centre console which consisted of the two motors. The battery clasp can transport up to two AA size 1.5V batteries. The figure below is an illustration of the battery clasp.
Fig 8.1 The Battery clasp utilized
The printed circuit board is so fixed to the opposite side of the battery clasp. This forms a cylindrical molded construction. After this is done a base is mounted on to the underside of the construction. This base supports the non driven wheel which is a little metal ball. This metal ball rotates when the automaton turns. The other map of the metal ball is to back up the weight of the battery clasp and prevents the automaton from tilting towards on terminal. Then a cylindrical organic structure is mounted on to the automaton which makes the organic structure. The automaton is so tested if it can follow a black tape on a bright surface.
The Line Follower Robot is built to execute one particular undertaking which is to follow a line. The automaton was tested in different circuits where it successfully completed the circuit. This specific design of the Line Follower Robot utilizes merely two braces of detectors ( TX_IR and RX_IR ) to steer over the line. One defect of this theoretical account is its inability to take 90 grade bends. This job of the automaton can be overcome by utilizing more detectors alternatively of merely two braces. The usage of more detectors will give a more accurate reading to the logic unit. Besides, a PID accountant has to be used in order to surpass this job. Since the aim is to do a low cost, non- programmable automaton this method has to be used. With all these constituents in topographic point it is possible to plan and develop a automaton which can finish all the circuits. The automaton was constructed with minimal cost input. The organic structure of the automaton was made from composition board stuff which is easy available. The line follower automaton can hold broad scope of applications in assorted Fieldss for illustration the mechanization of bundle bringing in warehouses into the conveyance vehicle, traveling on to a higher note we can see the mechanization of the metropolis transit etc.
10. Recommendation for Future Work
The Line Follower Robot can be modified in several ways in order to map in different countries maintaining in head the nucleus rule of the automaton. The Line Follower Robot is similar to that of the Light Following Robot. The LFR finds broad range in countries of industry where it can be utilized to heighten the public presentation of bringing systems. The scope of operations can be varied immensely by utilizing accountants and modifying them to be used in different countries.
In this theoretical account of the LFR little DC motors have been used, even this can be changed and motors with higher power evaluations can be used to better the velocity. Therefore utilizing a combination of all this we can make a for effectual automaton.
Appendix – Angstrom
Artificial Intelligence – Army intelligence
Autonomous underwater vehicles – AUVs.
Direct Current – District of columbia
Effaceable Programmable Read Only Memory – Erasable programmable read-only memory
Light Emiting Diode – Light-emitting diode
Line Follower Robot – LFR
Light Detecting Robot -LDR
Robotics Institute of America – RIA
Receiver – RX
Transmitter – Texas
Appendix – Bacillus
If the automaton does non travel or the eyes do non blink:
Check connexion to battery beginning.
Check Battery mutual opposition.
Check switch place.
Check the battery charge ( replace old with new ) .
If the Robot does non travel but eyes flash:
Check the connectivity of the motors to the PCB.
Install the motor with the cogwheel suitably.
If the automaton does non follow the line:
Check placement of the motor.
Ensure the connectivity of the motor to the doodly-squat is non reversed.
Ensure the detectors are non blocked.
Check the breadth of the tape on the surface.