In order to discourse Mobile Commerce, besides shortened to M-Commerce, it is of import to cognize what M-Commerce is approximately. Harmonizing to Chaffey ( 2009 ) Mobile Commerce are “ electronic minutess and communicating conducted utilizing nomadic devices such as laptops, PDAs and nomadic phones, and typically with a wireless connexion ” .
From this definition, we can infer that M-Commerce is like E-Commerce except that E-Commerce is for personal computing machines and that M-Commerce is for nomadic devices. Indeed, M-Commerce is the subset of E-Commerce which includes all E-Commerce minutess, carried out utilizing nomadic device ( Sharma et al. , 2006 ) .
Although M-Commerce and E-Commerce are tantamount, M-Commerce has non the same issues and challenges as that of E-Commerce. The M-Commerce environment trades with different devices and engineerings. The manners of communicating protocols are besides different and imply new security issues. Furthermore, M-Commerce offers a new scope of services, therefore new chances arise for concerns. But before gaining money, concerns should plan new concern theoretical accounts.
In the following chapter, I will discourse the present M-Commerce environment. I will travel through the present engineerings, applications and services of M-Commerce. Furthermore, I will speak from a concern point of position by giving illustrations of bing M-Commerce. I will besides research the different concern theoretical accounts by supplying real-life illustrations and at the terminal of the following chapter ; I will pull the today ‘s challenges of M-Commerce.
The Present of M-Commerce
The engineerings for M-Commerce
The engineerings are the most of import facet when we talk about M-Commerce because they are the footing of everything. This is for that ground that understanding the current landscape of the nomadic phone engineerings is a cardinal factor when making M-Commerce. Thus, by cognizing the present engineerings, concerns would be able to take the engineering that will run into their demands. Afterwards, concerns would be able to plan services harmonizing to the engineering chosen. Therefore, everything follows from the engineerings chosen, but before cognizing what follows from the engineerings I will analyze the present landscape of the nomadic phone engineerings.
The landscape of the nomadic phone engineerings keeps germinating twelvemonth after twelvemonth. Indeed, every twelvemonth it goes through a figure of alterations in the criterions ( BusinessLink.gov.uk, 2011 ) and in the nomadic devices. Although the engineerings vary harmonizing to the states and on the web suppliers, the landscape of the wireless entree engineerings or the engineerings that are embedded in the nomadic phone could be spread into two classs, long and short scope ( Ref: appendix A, figure 1 ) .
In the “ short scope ” class, there are RFID and Bluetooth. Bluetooth, harmonizing to Chaffey ( 2009 ) , is a wireless criterion for transmittal of informations between devices over short scope ( less than 100 metres ) .
RFID, for radio-frequency designation, uses communicating via wireless moving ridges to interchange informations between a reader and an electronic ticket attached to an object, for the intent of designation and trailing ( Wikipedia, 2010 ) . The drawbacks of RFID are its costs, its impact on the environment and the wellness. That is why another similar attack to the RFID has been designed. It is called Quick Response ( QR ) codification and it represents a two dimensional saloon codification ( Ref: appendix A, figure 2 ) .
For the “ long scope ” class, there are engineerings used for personal communicating and engineerings for LAN/MAN. The present engineerings used for personal communicating are 2G, 2.5G, 3G and 3.5G. 3G has been introduced in 2004 and is the 3rd coevals of nomadic phone criterions and engineering. Nowadays, 3G is the most widespread engineering with 500 million of 3G clients worldwide ( GSMArena News, 2010 ) and the figure of 3G French telephones is turning fast ( mobiThinking.com, 2011 ) . Furthermore, 3G supports services that were non possible with earlier engineerings. For case, it supports voice and informations transmittal at greatly increased velocity ( 14.4 Mbits/s ) .
For LAN/MAN engineerings, Wi-Fi is the most common and is described as a high velocity radio local country web.
All the engineerings that we have seen, RFID, QR codification, Bluetooth, 3G and Wi-Fi represent an of import portion of the Mobile-Commerce environment. This is partially because all these engineerings are now available on every phone and smart phones which are a nomadic phone with PC-like capablenesss ( Turban et al. , 2011 ) . For case I have an iPhone 2nd coevals and a BlackBerry 3rd coevals. For both of them, all the engineerings listed supra are available.
Knowing the present engineerings is really indispensable but what would be M-Commerce without nomadic devices? Nothing. Thus, I will now rapidly travel through the nomadic devices landscape.
Harmonizing to the definition of the M-Commerce given in the debut, the electronic minutess and communicating are conducted by the usage of nomadic devices. But what nomadic devices are? Mobile devices include PDAs, laptops and nomadic phones. Although the words “ nomadic devices ” are easy to understand, pulling the landscape of the nomadic devices is hard because 100s of different nomadic devices are available to the terminal consumers and the scope of devices available alterations often. Therefore, harmonizing to GS1, this is a really complicated undertaking to efficaciously name all of all the nomadic devices that could be used for the M-Commerce intents.
Although this undertaking is complicated, the nomadic devices must hold certain features in order to enable nomadic commercialism to go on. The features are that the nomadic devices must supply Internet connectivity, a camera, a screen to expose barcodes and to read RFID tickets. Furthermore, nomadic devices should besides be portable, customisable and moderately priced ( GS1, 2009 ) . All these features are of import. It means that the industries should supply all these features in order to ease the acceptance of M-Commerce.
To reason, the landscape of the engineerings and nomadic devices of M-Commerce is rather hard to to the full understand it partially because it is continuously altering and germinating – tomorrow is today. Furthermore, the combination of nomadic devices and engineerings allow to the terminal users to be connected anytime and anyplace. This is the major advantage of the Mobile Commerce. Now that we know the landscape and that we can interact with anyone through the engineerings seen, users and concerns can make applications and services. Therefore, in the following portion, we will see the applications and services of M-Commerce.
Applications and Services of M-Commerce
We have antecedently seen the present engineerings and nomadic devices. All these nomadic devices present a assortment of package challenges and they besides offer a figure of software-enabled services that are non found in the desktop or even nomadic computing machine universes ( Turban et al. , 2011 ) .
The applications of M-Commerce are designed harmonizing to these software-enabled services, therefore these services are a foundation for the applications.
These present services are messaging services, location-based services and voice support services. They are no more no less the services offered by the 3rd coevals ( 3G ) except the messaging services that were introduced with the 2nd coevals.
Messaging services include SMS and MMS. SMS is highly popular, so today 76 % of all nomadic phone endorsers worldwide use SMS text messaging ( Turban et al. , 2011 ) . Then, MMS which is an extension of SMS allows users to direct rich media like picture, images and sounds to other MMS-enabled nomadic phones.
The 2nd service which is the location-based services ( LBS ) allows happening where the clients and clients are located. It besides offers great chances for concerns because concerns can break function users for case by giving information like nearby eating houses, conditions, etc. Although, harmonizing to a Forrester Research ( 2010 ) , merely 16 % know of LBS apps ( Ref: appendix A, figure 3 ) , harmonizing to SNL Kagan ( 2010 ) , the figure of users has been steadily mounting from 12.3 million in 2009 to 33.2 million in 2010 ( Ref: appendix A, figure 4 ) .
Then the last service is Voice-Support Services. With the nomadic devices, users are connected anytime and anyplace. With this service, users are much more than free, no demand to utilize custodies or eyes, everything is done through the voice. It could give some chances for concerns, for case, like planing applications that users can utilize when drive.
All these services are really of import when planing applications for Mobile. Developing package and services for nomadic devices are hard because, as we have antecedently seen, there are 100s of different nomadic devices ; each nomadic device has its ain service and engineering. Furthermore, each nomadic device has its ain scheduling linguistic communication. For case, the present smartphone are Windows Phone 7, iPhone and Android. To develop for WP7 developers have to develop in Silverlight or XNA, for iPhone in Cocoa and for Android in Java.
Although developing package and services for nomadic devices are hard if concerns know the services that exist, concern could break answer to the terminal users ‘ demands. Furthermore, this is through these services that the overall acceptance of M-Commerce will turn. Indeed, if the services are non good designed or unpopular or non used, no concerns will develop package.
We will now see the present applications of M-Commerce. The assorted applications of M-Commerce are Mobile Banking ( M-Banking ) , Mobile Information services, Mobile Shopping ( M-Shopping ) , Mobile Ticketing, Mobile Marketing and Mobile Entertainment.
M-Banking: M-Banking means a fiscal dealing conducted by logging on to a bank ‘s website utilizing a cell phone, such as sing history balances, doing transportations between histories or paying measures. M-Banking is most frequently performed via SMS but can besides utilize particular plans, called clients, downloaded to the nomadic device ( Gusain, 2009 ) .
The M-Banking services are, for case, recent minutess, balance checking in the history, telling cheque books, nomadic recharging and measure payment processing.
As an illustration, when I want to see my bank history and in peculiar my balance I launch the application “ BNPParibas ” and I can make everything, sing my history balance and doing transportation. Furthermore, there is non merely “ BNPParibas ” there are besides Westpac ( Australia ‘s first bank ) , NatWest, Royal Bank of Scotland, J.P Morgan, etc.
The advantages of M-Banking are that it is easy to utilize, it is a common tool among consumers, it works across all radio operators, it is low-cost for consumers, it requires no package installer and it allows Bankss and fiscal establishment to supply real-time information to clients and employees ( Mobile Marketing Association, 2009 ) . On the other manus, the chief disadvantage is that it does non offer a secure environment.
M-Banking statistics: M-Banking has been introduced in 2004 but, harmonizing to mbanking.blogspot.com ( 2007 ) , successful deployment with positive concern instances and large strategic impact have been seen late. Currently merely approximately 1,000 of the 30,000 independent fiscal permutation offer nomadic banking to their clients ( creditnet.com, 2010 ) . Furthermore, Berg Insight ( 2010 ) estimates that users of M-Banking and related services ( including money transportations ) doubled between 2008 and 2009 to 55 million and will duplicate once more in 2010.
Mobile Information services: Information services include a broad assortment of information services that can be delivered to mobile phone users. These services include intelligence, athletics tonss, traffic coverage, circuit and travel information. Thus, for the intelligence, it could be everything like BBC and CCN. For traffic coverage there is for case the application California Traffic Report for iPad.
Mobile shopping: M-Shopping is the purchase of goods and services. The best known applications are Amazon and eBay. Amazon offers an application for iPhone, Android and for WP7 users. Recently ( 2011 ) Gallic connexion ( FCUK ) has started its M-Commerce run by establishing an iPhone application.
M-Shopping statistics: About 50 % of smartphone proprietors use ( or program to utilize ) their phones for nomadic shopping ( ABI Research, 2010 ) . 36 % of vacation shoppers are utilizing their nomadic device for shopping-related activities this vacation season ( Price Grabber Survey, 2010 ) . 16 % of iPhone users have shopped via Mobile ( internetretailer.com, 2010 ) . Furthermore, harmonizing to Jeff Bezos ( 2010 ) , laminitis and CEO of Amazon.com, in the last 12 months, clients around the universe have ordered more than US $ 1 billion of merchandises from Amazon utilizing nomadic devices.
Mobile ticketing: Mobile ticketing is the procedure whereby clients can order, wage for, obtain and validate tickets from any location and at any clip utilizing nomadic phone ( Wikipedia, 2008 ) . For case there is an application called “ In Ticketing ” which is an iPhone application. Its intent is to look into in attendants at your events, supervise your ticket gross revenues and entree your events information.
Mobile fining statistics: Harmonizing to a recent study by Juniper Research ( 2011 ) , by the terminal of 2011, there will be approximately 2.6 billion of nomadic tickets delivered to more than 208 million users.
Mobile selling: Mobile selling, harmonizing to the Mobile Marketing Association ( 2010 ) , is “ a set of patterns that enable administration to pass on and prosecute with their audience in an synergistic and relevant mode through any nomadic device or web ” . Mobile selling is for case nomadic vouchers and nomadic newssheets. For nomadic vouchers, there is “ CardStar ” for iPad which is a new manner to detect, seamster and deliver vouchers, offer and publicities from your favorite retail merchants and trade names.
Mobile Marketing statistics: 79 % of smartphone users found it utile to download nomadic vouchers to their phones ( Accenture, reported by Internet Retailer, 2010 ) . 73 % of consumers find it utile to have an instant voucher as they pass by an point in a shop ( Accenture, reported by Internet Retailer, 2010 ) .
Furthermore, 67 % of the universe ‘s population are nomadic subscribers- far outweighing Online entree ( MobileMarketingWatch.com, 2010 ) .
Mobile amusement: Mobile amusement comprises a scope of activities associated with nomadic electronics ( Wikipedia, 2010 ) . It includes games, picture, music, ringtones, etc.
Mobile amusement statistics: The most used Mobile apps are games, intelligence, maps, societal networking and music ( Nielsen, 2010 ) . The person nomadic amusement growing countries and their worth in 2011 are games ( $ 7 billion ) , music ( $ 13 billion ) , images ( $ 4 billion ) , videos ( $ 6 billion ) , Television ( $ 1 billion ) and grownup ( $ 2 billion ) . Harmonizing to a Juniper Research ( 2008 ) , nomadic amusement will bring forth $ 47.5 billion by 2010.
We have seen the major applications of M-Commerce. Furthermore I have illustrated them by giving the most present statistics.
Business theoretical accounts for M-Commerce
M-Commerce is a new environment where the concerns must turn out themselves. Sing the users ‘ demands is one thing, but concerns should capture value of what they have developed or of what they are offering. Therefore, the combination of the new environment and capturing value oblige concerns to introduce and to happen new concern theoretical accounts.
Harmonizing to Chaffey ( 2009 ) , concern theoretical account is “ a sum-up of how a company will bring forth gross placing its merchandise offering, value-added services, gross beginnings and mark clients ” .
As we have antecedently seen, M-Commerce is a subset of E-Commerce, therefore the concern theoretical accounts for E-Commerce besides work for M-Commerce expect that M-Commerce trades with nomadic engineerings.
But what makes a good Mobile concern theoretical account? Harmonizing to Kalu ( 2011 ) , the most of import constituent of a nomadic concern scheme is engaging and retaining few package professionals and forces who have demonstrated experience in planing applications and web collateral for nomadic platforms. In other words, the quality of the nomadic application is really of import.
To exemplify this, I have late read a web log station which has been written by Charlton ( 2011 ) where he is stating his narrative. His narrative, which happened in UK, is that he has attempted to put an order with both Domino ‘s Pizza and Pizza Hut from his nomadic phone. He has compared the place pages and the ordering procedure. For the place pages, Pizza Hut does non hold a web site optimised for Mobile. On the other manus, the place page of Domino ‘s Pizza has been developed and designed for iPhone, therefore it is really easy to utilize, no demand to whizz in so out and to the full optimised ( Ref: appendix A, figure 5 ) . Then, Charlton tried to put an order and harmonizing to himself it is possible to order from Pizza Hut but it is non user friendly at all. Furthermore, the web site does non decently work because there are few Flash elements that can non be displayed on the iPhone. For Domino ‘s Pizza, the telling procedure is much easier.
To reason, Domino ‘s Pizza has created a good nomadic user experience. Furthermore, 2 statistics shows that Domino ‘s Pizza and its M-Commerce is absolutely working. The first statistic is, harmonizing to the Quarter Four Trading Update of Domino ‘s Pizza UK and IRL ( 2011 ) that Domino ‘s Pizza has increased its online gross revenues by 63 % to ?128 million in 2010. The 2nd statistic is that, harmonizing to Charlton ( 2011 ) , the Domino ‘s Pizza application has had more than 400,000 downloads and brought in more than ?1 million in gross revenues since it was launched last August.
Therefore, holding package and nomadic professionals and holding a good Mobile or web site is a cardinal factor in order to acquire money. But is it good plenty to hold an astonishing application which has been designed for nomadic devices? I think that the best thing is to acquire reappraisals and feedbacks on the application. Domino ‘s Pizza does that really good because at the terminal of each dealing, clients can rate the overall user experience, how was the gustatory sensation of the pizza one time delivered, how was the driver who has delivered the pizza and will you portion your experience with your friends or household. Finally, in other words Domino ‘s Pizza earns money through feedbacks, societal media and word-of-mouth. They do non gain money with their iPhone application because it is free and they do non gain money through advertisement because there are no ads when telling.
There are besides other possible beginnings of gross like subscription fees, usage fees, shopping concern theoretical accounts, selling concern theoretical accounts, improved efficiency concern theoretical accounts, publicizing concern theoretical accounts and revenue-sharing concern theoretical accounts ( Sadeh, 2002 ) . Unfortunately, I can non depict them all, but, I will speak about the subscription fees concern theoretical account. With this concern theoretical account, concerns earn money by bear downing users. For case, if users want to entree to a peculiar content they will hold to pay. For case, the iPhone application of “ the Economist ” merely shows yesteryear and recent editions. Users can read the high spots but if they want to buy, either they buy the individual issue or they can buy a subscription. ( Ref: appendix A, figure 6 ) . Another illustration is with the Guardian application. Indeed, when users launch the application, there is a green button at the underside of the application called “ Subscribe ” ( Ref: appendix A, figure 7 ) .
Another illustration of concern theoretical account has been designed by Pizza Libretto. When person wants to eat in one of the Pizza Libretto eating houses, but unluckily the eating house is full, the eating house will take the nomadic phone figure of the clients. Harmonizing to Purves ( 2010 ) , the eating house will pack you and your party off to any great small bars/pubs following door and when it is ready, Pizza Libretto will name you. The consequence is that the turnover has increased by up to 30 % .
Through this illustration, we can see that any sorts of Mobile-Commerce concern theoretical accounts are possible. Indeed, concerns have to utilize their imaginativeness, as Pizza Libretto did.
To summarize, we have seen in this portion a definition of what a concern theoretical account is so what makes a good Mobile concern theoretical account. Afterwards, we have seen a real-life illustration of a good nomadic experience with Domino ‘s Pizza. Subsequently, we have explored the different concern theoretical accounts and more specifically the subscriptions concern theoretical account with illustrations.
Today ‘s Challenges
We have seen what forms the M-Commerce, engineerings, nomadic devices, the applications and services and besides the concern theoretical accounts.
Although M-Commerce is good implemented by several companies that we have antecedently seen, M-Commerce still remains an environment where there are issues and challenges.
The most of import today ‘s issue is the security. Are the clients ready to purchase? Harmonizing to Milo ( 2011 ) , the top 2 nomadic shopping applications for 2011 are 1-800-flowers.com and Amazon ( Ref: appendix A, figure 8 ) . But M-Commerce could be much more widespread and used if the security issues did non be. The security issues are a barrier to the acceptance of specific services and applications. This is the chief ground why M-Banking applications are non used by everyone. Furthermore, the security jobs are that M-Commerce minutess about ever pass through several webs, both radio and wired ( Turban et al. , 2011 ) . Therefore, the today ‘s challenge would be to construct IT substructure wholly designed for M-Commerce in order to construct trust with the users.
Another issue is the serviceability. We have antecedently seen a instance with Pizza Hut and Domino ‘s Pizza. We deduced that the serviceability is important. Domino ‘s Pizza has designed its web site for iPhone but what if I want to order via another nomadic device? I have tested with my BlackBerry and the consequence and that the rendition is rather different of what I have seen on my iPhone ( Ref: appendix A, figure 9 ) . Therefore, serviceability is really of import but could be really dearly-won because concerns have to plan for each nomadic devices ( iPhone, BlackBerry, Android, Windows Phone, etc. ) . It besides means that when developing applications, concerns should take into consideration the hardware ( for illustration the size of the screen ) but besides the platform and the scheduling linguistic communications. Indeed, harmonizing to Daswani ( 2001 ) , concerns need to compose to one or more criterions or engage a company to assist them because there are many different operation systems. I think that this is besides a present challenge because concerns have to cognize which devices to utilize in order to aim their clients. Should my concern develop for Android, iPhone, Windows Phone or all of them? On the other manus, I think that this is impossible to see Microsoft, Google, Palm and Apple working on a same undertaking merely to standardise everything.
Furthermore we have antecedently discussed the concern theoretical accounts with 2 instances, but harmonizing to f3 fund it ( 2010 ) , there is no nomadic concern theoretical account. I partly agree with him because in most of the instances when concerns develop for iPhone or users they merely do that in order to advance their services or what they sell. It means that they do non acquire money straight from the application. On the other manus, I disagree because more and more iPhone applications include ads and partnerships. Furthermore, as I said in the old portion with the Pizza Libretto illustration, concerns must introduce to happen concern theoretical accounts.
To summarize this portion, security, serviceability, standardization and concern theoretical accounts are the today ‘s challenge of M-Commerce. This besides closes the talk on the present of M-Commerce. We have had a expression at the present of M-Commerce, but as every concern and every people working in a technological field should state how will it look in the hereafter? Therefore, in the following chapter, I will speak about the hereafter of M-Commerce. I will travel through the engineerings, the applications and services that will determine of the hereafter of the nomadic commercialism. By the terminal of the following chapter, I will seek to hold a expression at what M-Commerce will look in 2015 and 2020. Then, I will happen out in which state it could be the most interesting to make M-Commerce.
The Future of M-Commerce
We live in a universe where the engineerings are invariably altering and germinating, therefore in order to keep its concern in the M-Commerce environment or merely our cognition, it is of import to cognize the engineerings that will determine the hereafter of M-Commerce.
The hereafter engineerings will be the 4th and 5th coevals of cellular radio criterions ( 4G and 5G ) . Although the 4th coevals is already bing, it is non deployed everyplace.
Refering the 4th coevals, it offers new services and some important betterments have been made. Harmonizing to Satalkar ( 2010 ) , 4G is expected “ to give a comprehensive and unafraid all IP-based solution, which will hold installations like IP telephone, extremist broadband Internet entree, bet oning services and streamed multimedia installation to the user ” . Thus, 4G offers more velocity, security and installations than the 3G.
Before rapidly presenting the 5th coevals, another engineering that will determine the hereafter of M-Commerce and the manner we design nomadic applications is HTML5. We have antecedently seen that 4G offers more velocity and more installations like gambling services and multimedia. Therefore, HTML5 could be a perfect manner to develop applications for nomadic devices. Harmonizing to Siwicki ( 2010 ) , HTML5 holds great promise for nomadic commercialism. Indeed, HTML5 will supply more interactivity and developers will be able to develop rich applications like games. Harmonizing to Oshiro ( 2010 ) , HTML5 is great for Mobile. Furthermore, HTML5 could work out one of the today ‘s challenges, the standardization. Indeed, HTML5 could work out this concern, because HTML can run anyplace. The consequence would be that developers alternatively of utilizing batch of different scheduling linguistic communications, they will utilize merely one.
Therefore, HTML5 could be the future engineering to develop rich application and this for every nomadic device. Obviously, the makers should play the game by supplying HTML5-enabled nomadic devices. Finally, harmonizing to the W3C ( 2011 ) , W3C targets 2014 for HTML5.
I will now rapidly present the 5th coevals ( 5G ) . Harmonizing to Wikipedia ( 2011 ) , the execution of criterions under a 5G umbrella would probably to be around the twelvemonth of 2020. 5G will offer more velocity, so harmonizing to Wikipedia ( 2011 ) , 5G criterion would hold peak download and upload velocities of more than the 1Gbps.
We have seen the engineerings that will determine the hereafter of M-Commerce. More content and more multimedia would be the hereafter. Therefore, what could be the hereafter services and applications of M-Commerce?
Future Services and Applications
We have seen in the first portion the present services and applications of M-Commerce. I will research in this portion the services and applications that will turn the most in the following old ages and besides the applications and services that could look. Although I will present the services and applications that will turn the most we should non at all forget the services and applications seen in the old chapter like nomadic amusement, nomadic selling and M-Shopping.
Therefore, the services and applications that will turn the most in the approaching old ages are M-Ticketing, M-Banking and location-based services ( LBS ) . To exemplify their growings I will give some prognosiss.
M-Ticketing prognosis: Harmonizing to a Jupiter Research ( 2010 ) , more than 1 in 10 nomadic endorsers will utilize M-Ticketing in 2014. The services, harmonizing to the Jupiter Research ( 2010 ) , are developing fastest in the conveyance sector, peculiarly rail and tube companies and air hoses, but M-Ticketing is besides used in concerts and films.
M-Banking prognosis: Harmonizing to Berg Insight ( 2010 ) , they estimate that in 2015 there will be 894 million users globally.
Location-based services ( LBS ) prognosis: Gartner ( 2009 ) predicts that the LBS user base will turn globally from 96 million in 2009 to more than 526 million in 2012. Furthermore, there are many histrions in this market like Facebook, Four4Square and shortly Google. It shows that this sector is spread outing.
M-Ticketing, M-Banking and Location-based services will be the sectors that will turn the most, but concerns should non at all neglect the present applications and services like M-Shopping, Mobile Entertainment and Mobile Marketing because they will besides extensively turn.
I will now research the applications and services that could look in the coming old ages. Therefore, in the coming old ages could look new tendencies like M-Payment and M-Health.
Mobile Health: M-Health, harmonizing to Wikipedia ( 2011 ) , is a term used for the pattern of medical and public wellness, supported by nomadic devices.
M-Heath statistics: Harmonizing to the Global M-Health Developer Survey ( 2010 ) , M-Health will interrupt through in the following five old ages partially because about 80 % of respondents see diabetes as the curative country with the highest concern potency and that the smartphone incursion is seen as the chief driver for M-Health by 63 % of respondents.
Mobile Payment: M-Payment, harmonizing to Wikipedia ( 2011 ) , is a new and rapidly-adopting alternate payment method. Therefore, alternatively of paying with hard currency, check or recognition cards, a consumer can utilize a nomadic phone to pay. It means that in the hereafter we will be able, for case, to purchase music, picture, games, ticks and books with a nomadic phone.
M-Payment statistics: Harmonizing to a Portio Research ( 2010 ) , the volume of m-payments could make US $ 633.4 billion by end-2014 ( alternatively of US $ 68.7 billion in 2009 ) . Furthermore, harmonizing to MobiThinking.com ( 2011 ) , 50 % of the universe ‘s nomadic endorsers could be paying by Mobile by 2014.
To summarize, we have seen in this portion M-Ticketing, M-Banking, location-based services, M-Health and M-Payment that are the applications and services that could be portion of the future M-Commerce environment.
Mobile Commerce in 2015
How will look M-Commerce in 2015? Every concern would wish to cognize in order to be ready for the hereafter. Therefore, I will research the importance M-Commerce and the new tendencies like the acceptance of M-Commerce in developing states.
Harmonizing to ABI Research ( 2010 ) , nomadic is traveling to acquire a batch bigger in the ecommerce market, furthermore ABI is besides foretelling that 2015, $ 119 billion worth of goods and services will be purchased via a nomadic phone.
Indeed Jean-Michel Noir ( 2011 ) , who is the Chief executive officer of the Redcasts Group, said that nomadic commercialism is traveling to be reasonably large and that he expects 10 % to 20 % of entire gross revenues to come from M-Commerce by 2015.
Refering M-Commerce and its acceptance, I personally think that Mobile-Commerce will hold a immense impact on developing states like states in Africa. Harmonizing to Robles ( 2010 ) mobile phone frequently provides the lone tract to the Internet, intending nomadic phones will be at the Centre of internet-based commercialism in these states. Therefore, for case, M-Payment could be really used in these states by 2015.
Finally, M-Commerce is and will be in the hereafter a really of import channel for concerns in order to turn their gross revenues, but besides to acquire closer to their clients in order to give at the right clip what their clients want.
Mobile Commerce in 2020
How will look M-Commerce in 2020? MOCOM2020.com, which is a collaborative think armored combat vehicle about the hereafter of nomadic media, has drawn a large image of how M-Commerce will look in 2020 ( Ref: appendix A, figure 10 ) . Therefore, harmonizing to MOCOM2020 in 2016, NYTIMES will halt the bringing of publishing newspapers and alternatively they will sell ePaper readers for $ 1 and in 2017 other printing companies will follow NYTIMES.
In 2017, the nomadic media market will be bigger than all the other media channel together. There will besides be an debut to instant interlingual rendition. It will take the linguistic communications barriers.
In 2018, U.S. authorities starts the enterprise to increase nomadic public security called the “ nomadic docket ” . Furthermore, still harmonizing to MOCOM2020, in 2018 we will make more than 8 billion people worldwide. Among this population 5 billion will hold a nomadic phone and among this 5 billion, 2.5 billion will hold an entree to the Internet. This will be the coevals of digital indigens.
In 2019, privateness, information, entree and control have become the cardinal issues in the universe ‘s economic system. All what I said is harmonizing to MOCOM2020.
Finally, in 2020 the nomadic media is riotous, prosecuting, synergistic and controversial.
Where to make M-Commerce?
In this portion we will see in which state it could be the most interesting to make M-Commerce.
The reply is Japan. Why Japan? I will seek to reply to this inquiry by giving some arresting statistics.
In Japan, there are 111 million Mobile endorsers, 92.5 million of them use nomadic informations services – that ‘s 83 % of the subscriber base, or 72 % of the population mobiThinking.com ( 2011 ) . Furthermore, harmonizing to mobiThinking.com ( 2011 ) , the 3G French telephone incursion in Japan is really high ( +95 % ) , therefore it keeps Japan at the pinnacle of nomadic Web. Furthermore, limitless programs were introduced in 2004 and today, 75 % of Nipponese are on limitless programs ( Infinita Research, 2011 ) .
Another statistic is that 10 % of Nipponese nomadic endorsers paid by Mobile in December entirely ( mobiThinking.com, 2011 ) .
Finally, Japan remains male monarch, harmonizing to mobiThinking.com ( 2011 ) , and besides harmonizing to newmediaage ( 2011 ) , Japan leads planetary nomadic commercialism market.