Chapter 1 outlined the background for this thesis bespeaking that Transfer of Training: Challenges faced by technicians in the Malayan fabrication industry. The Chapter described preliminary grounds proposing that motive is a factor which enhances preparation transportation.
Chapter 2 intended to put the research job in its academic context by polling the International based research literature on transportation of preparation before traveling to a elaborate treatment of the construct of motive to reassign. First, the Chapter outlines the assorted definitions of preparation and transportation of preparation in order to put a base line for understanding the operational variables in this country. The Chapter so sets out the definitions of motive to reassign preparation and the 3rd subdivision explores the factors which may act upon trainees ‘ motives to reassign their preparation by sing the development of several cardinal developing rating theoretical accounts: the Kirkpatrick ( 1994 ) four degree rating theoretical account and the Learning Transfer System Inventory ( LTSI ) ( Holton et al. 2000 ) . The Human Resource Development Evaluation Research and Measurement Model ( the HRD theoretical account ) ( Holton 1996 ) is described in the 4th subdivision of this Chapter. The HRD theoretical account was the first effort to comprehensively stipulate factors that can act upon trainee ‘s motive to reassign developing both straight and indirectly.
2.2 Training and Transfer of Training
The International Encyclopaedia of Adult Education and Training ( 1996:519 ) defined preparation as the judicial admission that is meant at making knowing acquisition processes that contribute to bettering the public presentation of workers in their current occupation. The account does non vary drastically from definitions of preparation in the HRD circumstance. For illustration, in an HRD state of affairs, preparation is often defined as a planned acquisition pattern designed to convey about lasting alteration in an person ‘s cognition, attitudes, or accomplishments ( Campbell, Dunnete, Lawler & A ; Weick 1970:497 ) .
Goldstein ( 1992:3 ) provided a description that related preparation to single public presentation which is, debatably, a more disposed form of HRD aims. He defined preparation as the orderly gaining of attitudes, constructs, cognition, functions or accomplishments that result in improved public presentation at work. Normally, it has been found that most workplace developing definitions in the international literature highlight the current occupation as the focal point. For illustration, Tziner, Haccoun and Kadish ( 1991 ) noted that the primary thought of preparation is to help people increase accomplishments and abilities which, when applied at work, will better their normal occupation public presentation in their current occupation.
The definition provided by Tziner et Al. ( 1991 ) links the accomplishment of cognition and accomplishments gained through preparation to an application in the workplace. This nexus represents the construct of preparation transportation. Transportation of preparation is normally defined as the measure to which trainees apply the cognition, accomplishments and attitudes gained in developing to their occupation ( Ford & A ; Weissbein 1997 ; Tannenbaum & A ; Yulk 1992 ; Wexley & A ; Latham 1991 ) . Most research workers used the footings ‘transfer of preparation ‘ and ‘transfer of larning ‘ interchangeably to mention to the application of the cognition and accomplishments learned in developing back to the occupation. The application of these accomplishments has besides been described as in advancement exercising instead than a once-off undertaking. In this sense, transportation of preparation has been described as the saving of accomplishments, cognition and attitudes over a certain period of clip ( Baldwin & A ; Ford 1988 ) .
Transportation of preparation required to be measured as a multidimensional physique because different writers view transportation of developing otherwise, imputing a assortment of characteristics to its definition. For illustration, Wexley and Latham ( 1991 ) suggest that transportation can be measured as a positive, negative or a nothing. Positive transportation occurs when larning in the preparation state of affairs consequences in better public presentation on the occupation. This reflects the general premise behind most definitions of transportation of preparation. Negative transportation occurs when larning in the preparation state of affairs consequences in poorer public presentation on the occupation. Zero transportation, non surprisingly, occurs when larning in the preparation state of affairs has no consequence on the occupation public presentation.
Other research workers have offered different closely into transportation of preparation. For illustration, Cormier and Hagman ( 1987 ) measured it to dwell of two elements: general or specific transportation. On this analysis, common transportation refers to the petition of learned cognition and accomplishments to a higher degree or to a more composite work fortunes. It occurs when a trainee has grasped the generic accomplishments or constructs and generalised their application ( for case, job work outing ) . Specific transportation occurs when the trainee can use what has been learned in the preparation milieus to a similar work fortunes ( for case, larning to utilize a word processor in developing with application of that larning at work ) .
Finally, Laker ( 1990 ) proposed a difference between close transportation and far transportation in a preparation context. Harmonizing to this writer, near transportation occurs when trainees apply what was acquired in preparation to situations really similar to those in which they were trained. Far transportation, in difference, occurs when trainees apply the preparation to different state of affairss from the 1s in which they were trained.
In malice of how the transportation of preparation basicss has been described, there has been cosmopolitan understanding between research workers that transportation of preparation is a important issue in HRD. For illustration, Baldwin and Ford ( 1988 ) , in their early theoretical account of the transportation procedure provided HRD research workers and practicians of organizational preparation with an apprehension of the assortment of factors impacting transportation of developing include a assortment of trainee features, the preparation class design and the type of work milieus. Further, many research workers in this country have emphasised that any effort taken to measure developing effectiveness must look for these elements of transportation of preparation ( Broad & A ; Newstrom 1992 ; Kirkpatrick 1994 ; Noe 2005 ; Noe et Al. 2004 ) . Harmonizing to Bates ( 2003 ) , developing can make little to increase single or organizational public presentation unless what is learned as a consequence of preparation is transferred to the occupation.
The breach between what is learned and what is applied on the occupation represents, at least in HRD footings, a immense transportation job ( Baldwin & A ; Ford 1988 ; Broad & A ; Newstrom 1992 ; Ford 1994 ) . In one survey, Broad and Newstrom ( 1992 ) surveyed 85 trainees and asked them how much of the stuff learned was used on the occupation over clip. The responses were: instantly – 41 per centum ; six months subsequently – 24 per centum ; and one twelvemonth subsequently – 15 per centum. Broad and Newstrom ( 1992 ) besides noted that the deficiency of engagement of line directors and the deficiency of beef uping on the occupation were major barriers to the transportation of preparation. Not surprisingly, it has been reported in the literature that a measly of 10 per centum of the investing in preparation is returned in presentation upgrading ( Garavaglia 1993 ; Georgenson 1982 ) .
Regardless of the reported jobs in accomplishing successful transportation of preparation reported in the international HRD research, the preparation and development of employees continues to be viewed as a cardinal scheme for administrations to derive a spirited advantage ( Goldstein 1992 ; Noe 2005 ; Wexley & A ; Latham 1991 ) . One of the issue which stands out in the literature as a subscriber to more effectual transportation has been the point to which trainees are stimulated to utilize their preparation on the occupation.
2.3 Motivation to Transfer Training
Many research workers have approved that transportation of preparation will happen merely when trainees have the inspiration or desire to utilize the erudite cognition and accomplishments on the occupation ( Baldwin & A ; Ford 1988 ; Noe 1986 ; Noe & A ; Schmitt 1986 ; Wexley & A ; Latham 1991 ) . Arguably, without motive to reassign, even the most organized preparation plan will thresh about to be effectual. However, bantam is known about the elaborate factors that impact on a trainee ‘s motive to reassign preparation to the occupation ( Seyler et.al. 1998 ; Tannenbaum & A ; Yulk 1992 ) . As this thesis is concerned with uncovering factors that could act upon a technicians ‘ motive to reassign his or her preparation to the occupation, it is pertinent to analyze the two cardinal developing rating theoretical accounts in the HRD literature.
The Kirkpatrick ( 1994 ) developing rating theoretical account ( see 2.3.1 below ) and the Learning Transfer System Inventory ( see 2.3.2 below ) ( Holton et al. 2000 ) have received the most attending by research workers in the country of developing rating. Other developing assessment theoretical accounts such as developed by Hamblin ( 1974 ) , Phillips ( 1995 ) and ( Brinkerhoff 1987 ) are non discussed because they are encompassed in the drawn-out version of Kirkpatrick ‘s ( 1994 ) theoretical account. For illustration, Hamblin ( 1974 ) included economic benefits ( in a five-level theoretical account ) while Brinkerhoff ( 1987 ) proposed a six-level theoretical account. Phillips ( 1995 ) focused on return on investing in his theoretical account. Although each of these other writers ‘ work contributes greatly to the cognition in developing rating, their theoretical accounts mostly mirror Kirkpatrick ‘s theoretical account and it is to this theoretical account the thesis now turns.
2.3.1 The Kirkpatrick Model
The Kirkpatrick ( 1994 ) theoretical account of developing rating, besides recognized as the four-level rating theoretical account, has conquered the field of developing rating for farther 30 old ages and over ( Alliger & A ; Janak 1989 ; Alliger, Tannenbaum, Bennet, Traver & A ; Shortland 1997 ) . As depicted in Figure 2.1 below, the theoretical account consists of four phases: reaction, acquisition, behavior and consequences. Kirkpatrick ( 1994 ) described reaction, acquisition, behavior and consequences as preparation results ( steps that administrations use to measure preparation plans ) that intervention ( the preparation class ) hopes to bring forth.
Based on the theoretical account, reaction is the first degree in the rating procedure and is defined as how good the trainees were satisfied with a peculiar preparation plan ( Kirkpatrick 1994:27 ) . Harmonizing to Kirkpatrick, measuring response is critical for some grounds. First, it will supply cherished remark and suggestions for retrieving future preparation plans. Second, it tells trainees that the trainers are at that place to assist them make their occupation better and that they need feedback to find how effectual they are. Third, reaction sheets can give quantitative information to directors and those who worried about the plan every bit good as to establish criterions of public presentation for future preparation plans. In order for trainers to acquire the maximal benefit from reaction steps, Kirkpatrick ( 1994:28 ) provided scheme for measuring reaction that included: planing a signifier that will quantify the reaction to preparation ; promoting written remarks and suggestions which can be utile in the redesign of the preparation class ; taking for a 100 per centum response ; developing acceptable criterions ( for case, criterions for teachers or installations ) and to mensurate reactions against criterions.
Following, acquisition was defined as the degree to which trainees change their attitudes, better their cognition and increase their accomplishments as a consequence of go toing preparation ( Kirkpatrick 1994:42 ) . Kirkpatrick stressed that measuring acquisition is of import because no alteration in behavior ( flat 3 ) can be expected unless larning aims have been accomplished. The suggested guidelines for larning included utilizing a control group ( if practical ) ; utilizing a paper-and-pencil trial to measure the erudite cognition and accomplishments both before and after the plan and utilizing the rating consequences to take appropriate action, peculiarly for trainers to work on being more effectual in learning in the hereafter ( Kirkpatrick 1994:43 ) .
Behaviour is the 3rd degree in the rating procedure and is defined as the extent to which alteration in behavior has occurred because the trainee attended the preparation plan ( Kirkpatrick 1994:52 ) . This degree attempts to mensurate how much transportation of cognition, accomplishments, and attitudes occurs. Kirkpatrick stressed that it is of import to see whether the cognition and accomplishments learned in the preparation plan were transferred to the occupation. However, he warned that no rating should be attempted until trainees had an chance to utilize the new acquisition. Therefore, for some preparation plans, two or three months after preparation may be appropriate. Measuring larning behavior can be done by utilizing studies or through questioning one ( or more ) of the trainees, their immediate supervisor, their subsidiaries and others who are knowing about their behavior ( Kikpatrick 1994:55 ) .
Finally, level four of the Kirkpatrick theoretical account is the rating of consequences. Consequences can be defined as what occurred as a effect of the trainees go toing the preparation plan ( Kirkpatrick 1994:63 ) . Kirkpatrick used this 4th degree to associate the consequences of the preparation plan to organizational aims ( for case, increased production, improved quality, decreased costs, increased gross revenues and higher net incomes ) . He stressed that the concluding aims of the preparation plan demand to be stated harmonizing to the organizational aims for optimum return on investing. The suggested guidelines to measure consequences included utilizing a control group ( to extinguish factors other than developing that could hold caused the alterations observed ) ; mensurating both before and after the preparation plan and sing cost versus benefits ( the value of the existent consequences compared to the cost of the preparation plan ) .
Harmonizing to Kirkpatrick ( 1994 ) there is a natural flow between the degrees in the theoretical account. Reaction could take to larning ; larning could take to behaviour alteration ; and alter in behavior could take to positive organizational consequences. As the theoretical account depicted merely four variables ( reaction, acquisition, behavior and consequences ) the consequence of trainees ‘ motive to reassign preparation to the occupation was non an open consideration of Kirkpatrick ‘s. However, it is likely that motive was an premise underpinning the theoretical account as Kirkpatrick ( 1994:51 ) wrote that ‘without acquisition, no alteration in behavior will happen ‘ . This corresponds loosely with research which has demonstrated that alterations in behavior occur when trainees are motivated to utilize their preparation on the occupation ( Holton 1996 ; Noe & A ; Schmitt 1986 ; Seyler et. Al. 1998 ) . The findings from old surveies have besides shown that other variables lying outside the preparation schoolroom besides affect behavior alteration ( Baldwin, Magjuka & A ; Loher 1991 ; Hicks & A ; Klimoski 1987 ) . These external factors have been identified as the transportation clime ( Holton, Bates, Seyler & A ; Carvalho 1997 ; Rouiller & A ; Goldstein 1993 ) , workplace design ( Kupritz 2002 ) and personality characteristic variables such as selfefficacy ( Gist 1989 ; Gist, Schwoerer & A ; Rosen 1989 ; Gist, Steven & A ; Bavetta 1991 ) and preparedness to take part in preparation could besides impact behavior alteration.
Despite its laterality in the field, as described above, the Kirkpatrick ( 1994 ) theoretical account did non supply a strong usher to understanding what influences trainees ‘ motive to utilize preparation. In visible radiation of more recent literature on motive, this could be a cardinal skip in this traditional theoretical account. It is relevant so to turn to the other dominant developing rating theoretical account in the HRD literature: the Learning Transfer System Inventory ( LTSI ) developed by Holton, Bates and Ruona ( 2000 ) .
2.3.2 The Learning Transfer System Inventory ( LTSI )
Harmonizing to Holton, Bates and Ruona ( 2000 ) , administrations wishing to better the ROI from developing require to cognize the factors that influence transportation of preparation and so acquire involved to acquire rid of the factors which slow down transportation. In fact, the writers argued that the initial move to bettering transportation is to exactly place the inhibiting factors. In their 2000 survey titled “ Development of a Generalised Learning Transfer System Inventory ” , they introduced the thought of transportation strategy which encompassed factors in the ego, preparation and administration that persuade transportation of larning to work presentation.
The LTSI theoretical rating theoretical account used to widen the LTSI is depicted in Figure 2.2. Three chief developing consequences were defined in this theoretical account. These consequences were larning, single public presentation, and organizational consequences. Learning defined as attainment of the acquisition consequences wanted in intervention which transform in single public presentation as a consequence of the larning being applied on the work. It besides defined as consequences at the organizational phase as an result of the transform in single public presentation ( Holton 1996:9 ) . In contrast with Kirkpatrick ‘s ( 1994 ) developing rating theoretical account, three chief unsimilarities are of note. First, there is an deficiency of response as a preparation consequence in the LTSI. Holton, Bates and Ruona ( 2000 ) argued that reaction should be separated from rating theoretical accounts mentioning several surveies which indicated that reactions had no major connexion with acquisition ( Alliger and Janak 1989 ; Dixon 1990 ; Noe & A ; Schmitt 1986 ; Warr & A ; Bunce 1995 ) . For case, Warr and Bunce ( 1995 ) alienated reactions into three parts such as enjoyment, usefulness and perceived trouble and they found no of import association between any of them and larning consequences. Second, single public presentation is used in its topographic point of public presentation in the Kirkpatrick ( 1994 ) theoretical account because Holton et Al. ( 2000 ) said that single public presentation is a broader made than behaviour alteration and a more suited form of HRD aims. And 3rd, the LTSI conceptual theoretical account is debatably a more complete theoretical account than the Kirkpatrick ( 1994 ) theoretical account because it accounts for the clang of inspiration, environmental and capability/enabling elements.
The advancement of the LTSI into its close signifier occurred crosswise the late ninetiess. Following the development of Holton ‘s ( 1996 ) conceptual rating theoretical account ( Figure 2.2 ) , a alteration by Holton, Bates, Seyler and Carvalho ‘s ( 1997 ) identified a measure of clime variables which influence transportation of preparation. In this 1997 survey, the Godheads set up that trainees evident transportation clime harmonizing to referents to their administration ( for illustration supervisor, peer/task, or ego ) and the issue analysis in this survey extracted seven transportation clime physiques. These concepts are comprehensive in Table 2.1 and scheduled below:
supervisor support ( a supervisor ‘s strengthening of usage of preparation on the occupation ) ; opportunity to utilize ( trainees are provided with resources enabling them to utilize preparation on the occupation ) ;
equal support ( equals support usage of larning to the occupation ) ;
supervisor countenances ( consciousness of unenthusiastic responses from supervisors when using accomplishments learned in preparation ) ;
personal outcomes-positive ( using preparation on the occupation leads to optimistic consequence for trainees ) ;
personal outcomes-negative ( using preparation on the occupation leads to unenthusiastic consequence for trainees ) ; and
openness to alter ( current bunch norms discourage the usage of accomplishments and cognition acquired in preparation )
Additionally, factor analysis from the records besides suggested two excess transportation design concepts: content cogency ( trainee ‘s critic preparation satisfied to exactly reflect occupation demands ) and reassign design ( preparation has been designed to offer accomplishment to reassign larning to the occupation and bids match occupation demands ) . The writers so searched the literature on transportation of preparation to acknowledge seven other concepts that had non been earlier experienced in Holton et Al. ‘s ( 1997 ) survey but which they supposed, would suit into the conceptual theoretical account. The seven extra variables are detailed in Table 2.1 and include performance-self efficaciousness ( the religion that trainees are talented to transform their public presentation when they desire to ) ( Gist 1989 ; Gist et Al. 1989 ; Gist et Al. 1991 ) ; two outlook related variables: reassign effort-performance outlooks and performance-outcomes outlooks ( chance that attempt loyal to reassigning acquisition will steer to alterations in occupation public presentation and consequences correspondingly ) ( Bates & A ; Holton 1999 ; Noe & A ; Schmitt 1986 ) ; personal capacity for transportation ( trainees make the alterations necessary to reassign larning to the work ) ( Ford, Quinones, Sego & A ; Sorra 1992 ) ; feedback ( formal and informal indexs about an person ‘s occupation public presentation ) ; learner preparedness ( trainees prepared to lend in preparation ) ( Knowles, Holton & A ; Swanson 1998 ) ; and motive to reassign ( trainees ‘ want to utilize the information and accomplishments mastered in the preparation plan on the occupation ) ( Noe 1986 ; Noe & A ; Schmitt 1986 ) . Figure 2.3 shows how the 16 variables fit into the conceptual theoretical account and Table 2.1 provides definitions for each of the 16 concluding transportation variables.
Figure 2.3 shows how the LTSI histories for the clang of chief variables such as environmental, capableness and motivational variables. The LTSI indicates that motive to reassign is prejudiced by secondary variables such as performance-self efficaciousness and scholar preparedness. Holton et Al. ( 2000 ) demote to the variables impacting an person ‘s public presentation in the LTSI as a transportation system, which they distinct as all the issues in the individual, preparation and administration that influence transportation of larning to occupation public presentation. In other words, they argued that transportation must go on before larning can steer to single occupation public presentation. Table 2.1 below inside informations the definitions of the variables as depicted in the LTSI.
Some surveies have fruitfully used the LTSI theoretical account to formalize the factors impacting transportation of preparation ( Chen 2003 ; Donovan et Al. 2001 ; Holton et al. 2003 ; Yamnill 2001 ) . For illustration, Chen ( 2003 ) found that the LTSI was valid in Taiwan and Yamnill ( 2001 ) validated it in Thailand. The LTSI theoretical account has besides been claimed to be powerful in mensurating preparation efficiency ( Donovan et. Al. 2001 ) . Although the LTSI theoretical account integrated motive to reassign as one of the variables that could act upon single public presentation, the theoretical account merely specified two secondary influence variables ( learner preparedness and performance-self efficaciousness ) that could pull strings motive to reassign. In order to increase an in-depth perceptive of the direct and indirect consequence on motive to reassign, this chapter now moves to reason the Human Resource Development Evaluation Research and Measurement Model ( the HRD theoretical account ) ( Holton 1996 ) . This theoretical account, harmonizing to Holton ( 1996 ) should be used for research intents in look intoing motive to reassign preparation.
2.4 Influences on Motivation to Transfer
In Holton ‘s ( 1996 ) theoretical account, five categories of variables are hypothesised to act upon motive to reassign: occupation attitudes, intercession fulfillment, expected public-service corporation, reassign clime and larning results. They shape some of the transportation variables used in this thesis and are detailed below.
2.4.1 Job Attitudes
Job attitudes refer to trainees ‘ attitudes toward the administration and the occupation ( Holton 1996:11 ) . Harmonizing to Noe and Schmitt ( 1986 ) , highly job-involved persons are excess possible to be motivated to analyze new accomplishments since engagement in preparation activities can hike accomplishment degrees and acquire better occupation public presentation. Several surveies have investigated the connexion between occupation attitudes and motive to reassign but their consequences have been varied ( Cheng & A ; Ho 2001 ; Clark 1990 ; Kontoghiorghes 2004 ; Mathieu, Tannenbaum & A ; Salas 1992 ) . For illustration, Mathieu et Al. ( 1992 ) did non happen a of import connexion between occupation engagement and motive to reassign for the cause that trainees who were highly involved in their occupations did non detect the preparation plan as influential in obtaining valued results.
A related determination was originate in Cheng and Ho ‘s ( 2001 ) analyze this clip for the cause that trainees prosecuting a postgraduate plan may stand for their demands to better their employability somewhat than their occupation public presentation. On the other manus, two surveies established the of import consequence of the variables: occupation engagement on motive to reassign ( Clark 1990 ; Kontoghiorghes 2004 ) . In malice of the somewhat varied findings on occupation attitudes, it ruins a likely component with an influence on motive to reassign preparation.
2.4.2 Intervention Fulfilment
Intervention fulfillment refers to the grade to which developing meets or fulfils the trainee ‘s chance and demands ( Holton 1996:13 ) . The result of intercession fulfillment on motive to reassign preparation has received small concentration. Merely one survey was found to prove this thought and the determination has supported the connexion as hypothesised in Holton ‘s ( 1996 ) theoretical account ( Tannenbaum, Mathieu, Salas, & A ; Cannon- Bowers 1991 ) . In Tannenbaum et Al. ‘s ( 1991 ) survey, the connexion between intercession fulfillment and motive to reassign was of import. For that ground, they suggested that for involvement fulfillment to be a helpful construct in considerate trainees ‘ motive to reassign, future research should measure intercession fulfillment in other preparation environments.
2.4.3 Expected Utility
Harmonizing to Holton ( 1996:13 ) , developing plans that have expected public-service corporation or demo recompense to reciprocally the administration and to trainees should merchandise in greater motive to reassign larning to the occupation. This thought is dependable with Vroom ‘s ( 1964 ) outlook theory that persons will be more enthused when they consider their effort invested in the preparation plan will consequence in command of the preparation satisfied ( effort-performance outlook ) and when they consider that good public presentation in the preparation plan will steer to desirable results ( performance-outcome outlook ) .
The research workers found that built-in wagess in the signifiers of attractive, important and demanding work and unfavorable judgment on public presentation were found to be extremely valued. Other surveies have besides demonstrated the worth of anticipation theory ( Vroom 1964 ) in explicating motive to larn and developing transportation ( Noe & A ; Schmitt 1986 ; Yamnill 2001 ; Chen 2003 ) . For illustration, Noe and Schmitt ( 1986 ) found that outlooks sing effort-performance and performance-outcome linkages were extremely coincident with motive to analyze.