What Is E Government Information Technology Essay

Ever since Information systems became the nucleus substructure for modern concern, the security of information systems has been known as one of the most of import facets in guaranting concern continuity, unity, and handiness ( Zhang, 2007 ) . However, pull offing information systems security is ne’er a simple undertaking ( Zhang, 2007 ) . Organizations in the public and private sectors are confronting a broad scope of information menaces due to the progresss made in Information and Communication Technologies ( ICT ) Information security is a critical constituent in their information systems. With their increasing dependance on engineerings through e-government and available services connected over unfastened informations webs, effectual direction of information security has turned into one of the most indispensable success factors for public and private organisations ( Chang, 2006 ) . Requirements and processs for effectual information security direction patterns are a stipulation of e-government in order to promote the necessary stairss to guarantee successful results.

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Information systems and security best patterns and tendencies are globally similar. At the clip of using these best pattern attacks to applications, nevertheless, restricted variables and restrictions need to be stressed. This is the instance when we consider the application of generic best patterns to a specific state, peculiarly a state like Oman which may be considered as still developing technologically.

Case Studies have shown that there is a connexion between security issues, e-government and direction ( Dhillon and Backhouse, 2001 ; Dhillon and Torkzadeh, 2006 ; Heeks, 2003 ; Siponen and Oinas-Kukkonen, 2007 ; von Solms, 1999 ) . Surveies besides have shown that non-technical issues are every bit of import as proficient issues in protecting an administration ‘s sensitive information ( Dhillon and Torkzadeh, 2006 ; Siponen and Oinas-Kukkonen, 2007 ) . The magnitude of non-technical issues related to security direction, nevertheless, is non stressed in many surveies which tend to be quantitative by nature ( Siponen and Oinas-Kukkonen, 2007 ) . Particularly, with regard to developing states, there is a eventful demand of consciousness in the unfastened literature sing factors such as public and organizational civilization, background and degree of consciousness, and how these factors relate to non-specific attitudes towards information security and its direction, particularly the human factor ability in keeping these investings through preparation and other agencies. Therefore, to fix society for a new successful epoch, a cardinal administration has been established that is responsible for the managing of all these facets.

2.2 What is E-Government?

E-government or digital authorities is a planetary phenomenon and is recognized worldwide by authorities retainers and citizens as the bringing of authorities services over the cyberspace. E-government is non merely the direct services and the usage of engineering and is non limited to the cyberspace. This definition besides limits our perceptual experiences, as it simplifies e-government to the web site presented to the populace as the whole narrative, while it ignores the existent work of significant investings in human resources, procedures, policies and tools.

There are several definitions for e-government. Chiefly, they emphasise the function of new and rising information and communicating engineerings to keep the betterment and transmutation of authorities direction processes and services to its clients. It is besides seen as composite alteration and a transformational and multi-dimensional procedure.

Outline of the thesis:

The research study will organised outlined as follows:


This outlines the instance survey of this research, highlights its purposes and aims, the range research method utilised, the result expected and overall layout of the research.

Literature reappraisal:

The literature reappraisal on e-government and information security. It defines all the facets of e-government, the challenges confronting its execution in footings of information system security such as policies ‘ and models ‘ execution and the degree of security of the informations running over the specified webs, touching on some facet of the ICTs in e-government and the human factor ability to implement and keep these engineerings.

Research Methods and Methodology:

Describes research methods and methodological analysis used to obtain the beginnings for the instance survey, which is based on two beginnings. These are primary informations as a semi- structured interview to happen out the sentiments of the people involved, and secondary informations from assorted written literature, including studies from different sectors of the authorities and the private sector every bit good as bill of exchange statute laws. Some practical treatment with functionaries involved in e-government execution in Oman, is besides used to obtain any qualitative issues and such unpublished information. The survey recommends a conceptual model for e-government security direction within the context of developing states.

IS Research Methodologies

Many different research methodological analysiss can be used in information system research, but instance survey, action research, and field research are most widely used. Each research methodological analysis has its peculiar strengths and failings. As mentioned above, information system research was ab initio based on a rationalist attack, which meant that scientific research was widely used. The undermentioned diagram shows the methodological analysis attack used for this instance survey.


Literature Review





Case Study

Interviews & A ; Virtual Discussion






Primary Data Generation


Figure 1: Research Process theoretical account, Source Oates ( 2006, p. 33 )

Walsham ( 1995: p. 78 ) notes Yin ‘s designation of six possible beginnings for instance surveies: paperss, archival records, interviews, direct observations, participant observation, and physical artifacts.

E-Government in Oman:

Presents a description and environmental information on e-government in Oman which is the environment in which the survey will set about. In peculiar, it looks at the overview of some of the Omani authorities entities ‘ construction, e-government vision and enterprises, touching on some facet of the e-government ICTs and the human factor ability to implement and keep these engineerings. Last, it discusses the Information Technology Authority ( ITA ) as the cardinal organisation responsible for IT execution in Oman.

Figure 2: Oman, map

Analysis, Findings and Discussion:

Analyses the information systems security in e-government execution in Oman utilizing theoretical account of information system and model, with the Omani authorities vision as being the context for which this research is taken.

Research Aims:

The chief aim of the research survey is to measure the information security execution in e-government in Oman, which is a underdeveloped state seeking to keep jurisprudence and ordinance, and do possible societal economic development chiefly intended at bettering the value of life and the overall sweetening of society irrespective of the authorities ‘s philosophical and ideological perceptual experience. In term of information systems security the chief aim or end is to guarantee concern continuity, construct client assurance, protect concern investing and chances, and cut down harm to concern by forestalling and minimising the impact of security incidents. information security is concerned with protecting the confidentiality, unity, and handiness of information and information systems.

Research Problem:

The research concentrates on analyzing the issues environing the information security execution in Oman ‘s e-government. Its chief inquiries are:

How successful is the execution of information security in e-government?

Make regulations and statute laws contribute to the successful execution of information security?

Are there any cultural effects on this execution?

Expected Study Outcome:

The result of the survey is foremost to develop a good apprehension of the challenges in information security that face e-government execution in developing states in general and Oman in peculiar, and secondly to assist as a part to a organic structure of literature in information security in e-government.

2.8 The Proposed Model

E-government systems, Information direction in the populace sector, Information systems direction and Country context specify an e-government security model or theoretical account within which we discover e-government security direction in developing states. Such features place the e-government security impression within the broader model of societal and organizational premise. Information systems are “ proficient systems with societal deductions ” as described by ( Goldkuhl and Lyytinen, 1982 ) . Lyytinen ( 1987 ) stated that the construct of the socio-technical attack is built on the hypothesis that information system development involves the design of a work administration where its information system has to be similar with the environing societal system, that is, the user and the organizational environments. The chief cause of information systems jobs is the deficiency of tantrum between societal and proficient systems, after accepting that proficient and organizational systems are every bit of import ( Iivari and Hirschheim, 1996 ) .

Based on the literature there are several theoretical accounts of information security, which are established on the construct of the socio-technical attack. Kowalski ( 1994 ) suggested the Security by Consensus ( SBC ) theoretical account, which helps system users cope with five elements of the external environments ; moralss, jurisprudence, policy, processs and proficient demands, when substituting information with other systems. As discussed by Dhillon the serviceability of Information Systems technology design can be combined with socio-technical system attacks ( Dhillon, 1999 ) . Eloff and Eloff ( 2003 ) argue that legion facets such as criterions, guidelines, policies, engineering, codifications of pattern, human issues, legal and ethical issues are contained by an information security direction system ( ISMS ) . The information system direction literature is widely discussed by Ives et Al ‘s ( 1980 ) theoretical account of information systems research ( Lyytinen, 1987 ) .

Figure 3: A theoretical account of IS research [ Ives et Al. 1980, p. 917 ]

The selected information security direction theoretical account of information systems ( IS ) by Alfawaz et Al. ( 2008 ) adopted from Ives et Al ‘s ( 1980 ) theoretical account of information systems research distinguishes between three information system processes ( usage, development, and operations procedures ) and three information system environments ( user, IS development, and IS operations environments ) ( Ives et al, 1980 ) . The environments constituent defines the resources and restraints that province the range and construction of information systems and IS procedures.

The chosen theoretical account identifies the discriminators and necessities needed to be measured by states for efficaciously keeping their information security systems. This choice was made for a figure of grounds. First, there are several research workers who have used this theoretical account to set about different information system issues. Second, information security direction is considered as a chief portion of information direction systems. Third, the credibleness of the theoretical account is established by the apprehension of the practical facets of information systems ( Lyytinen, 1987 ) . Finally, due to its fullness, the theoretical account will enable the research worker to spy the information security issues in the context under survey ( Alfawaz et al.,2008 ) .

In order to sort the cardinal factors of information security in their public contexts, a conceptual model that helps to categorize such factors and understand their environment is needed. A figure of factors may act upon the achievement of e-government security direction, and these are suggested by the literature on the four facets i.e. e-government, information security direction, IT direction in the populace sector, and the state context. Based on the Ives et Al. ( 1980 ) theoretical account, four key constituents are suggested that are largely believed in the unfastened literature to hold the possible to significantly impact on the protection of administrations ‘ information assets ( Alfawaz et al.,2008 ) . The four constituents are: security civilization, managerial, information security substructures and alteration direction.

Security civilization signifies the popular mode towards attacks to safe organizational environmental factors such as civilization, ordinance and Torahs.

Managerial indicates the confidence of the direction program, duty, consciousness and committedness of senior direction and users, and relevant policies.

Information security substructures defined as systems that guard information assets from injury or abuse like Firewalls, Encryption, etc.

Last, the alteration direction attack refers to the alteration direction processs established within an organisation, and addressed as new work patterns and new ways of processing and acting undertakings.

The conceptual model conceives a strong relationship among the effectivity of e-government security direction in footings of the basic security standards ( handiness, unity, confidentiality and answerability ) and the conceptual model constituents which are security civilization, managerial and information security substructure. Figure 1 represents the conceptual model demoing its constituents. These cardinal constituents are reviewed in the balance of this subdivision.




Security substructure

Security mechanism


Management committedness

Skills and preparation


IS construction


Security Culture

Organization civilization

National civilization

Regulation and Torahs

Effective E-government

Security plan ( Confidentially – Integrity –

Accountability )



Figure 4: Model of information security direction factors ( Alfawaz et al.,2008 )

Decision and Recommendations:

The research worker sums up all the issues drawn from the analysis and findings of the instance survey, and suggestion for any betterments or recommendations.