Academic Malpractices are on the addition across the universe. It is a menace to the society and public trust in dependability and credibleness. Among the many causes are increasing engagement in formal instruction, and competition to derive certificates for educational, occupational and societal promotion. Examinations have become a major and cosmopolitan agencies to measure accomplishment. University grade is a requirement for acquiring a occupation or for farther survey. It is the lone standards to choose qualified persons for farther survey and employment. Students are judged on the footing of the result of the scrutiny to be fit for farther assignment. With the addition in the force per unit area associated with accomplishment, the demand for the making grows and with the addition in competition among pupils and between establishments, the hazard of academic Malpractices and cheating by pupils and by instruction establishments is besides increasing. There are many cases about cheating, bogus individuality and other ailment patterns taking topographic point in the scrutiny Centre. This opens tremendous chances for corrupt patterns. In this paper we have discussed the usage of ICT to control malpractice in the scrutiny hall.
Keywords – GER, ICT, AIES, PID, Malpractices.
In Indian higher instruction system there is many fold addition in its institutional capacity since independency. As per University Grants Commission ( 2008 ) study titled “ Higher Education in India-Issues related to enlargement, inclusiveness, quality and finance ” , the figure of universities in India has increased from 20 in 1950 to about 431 in 2008, colleges from 500 in 1950 to 20,677 in 2008 and registration of pupils has increased from mere 100,000 in 1950 to 11,612,000 in 2008 [ 1 ] . Manually direction of majority sum of information is really boring, time-consuming and mistake prone undertaking go forthing some infinite for malpractice and frauds at assorted degree. Effective direction and transparence are the cardinal factors to control malpractice and academic fraud. ICT in general and Internet in peculiar without any uncertainty has the huge potency as a tool for transparence and effectual direction. Harmonizing to Norris [ 2 ] the populace has lost religion in the public presentation of the nucleus establishments of representative authorities, and it is hoped that more unfastened and crystalline authorities and more efficient service bringing could assist reconstruct that trust. Thomas and Streib [ 3 ] has proposed every bit E-Governance as one of the best solution for bringing of authorities information and services online via the Internet or other digital agencies. It can better communicating between citizens and authorities through electronic mail, enabling more direct engagement in authorities decision-making.
In scrutiny system, the information is of really sensitive type, any via media with it can impair the calling of the pupils and any fiddling with the unity of such informations can take to distrust on the academic system as a whole.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Fraud in instruction is merely like a corruptness. Anechiarico and Jacobs, Kalnins has defined the instruction corruptness merely like a general set of corruptness issues. Like other countries, it includes the maltreatment of authorization for stuff addition [ 4,5 ] . From the position of societal development, corruptness in instruction is worse than corruptness in other countries because it contains both immoral and illegal elements.
Examination malpractice occurs both within and outside the scrutiny halls. It is perpetrated by pupils, staff and other external agents before, during and even after scrutinies. Many schemes applied to control scrutiny malpractices within the university system tend to be uneffective. The instance of bogus Markss sheet of pupil of BA 2nd twelvemonth was surfaced in Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, India. This was published in assorted newspapers. Tribune, Hindustan Times and Indian Express ( 2010 ) highlighted this issue and assorted study related with this incident was published in the newspaper [ 6,7 ] . In fact, new devices for commiting scrutiny malpractices grow by springs and bounds on campuses, doing such schemes look as if they are turn toing the symptoms instead than the root causes. This state of affairs might non be unconnected with the fact that pupil perpetrators are normally targeted by these schemes, brushing aside the contributory functions of other university members in the ultimate act. The seasonableness and effectivity of the disciplinary steps meted out to perpetrators have besides been faulted [ 8 ] . In order to acquire through the scrutinies, pupils use several sorts of malpractices. Harmonizing to Adewale ( 2004 ) , “ Examination malpractice is a constriction associated with the behavior of scrutinies [ 9 ] . The signifiers of scrutiny malpractice include conveying in foreign stuffs ; irregular activities inside and outside scrutiny hall ; collusion ; caricature ; escape ; mass cheating ; insult/assault on supervisors and others. ” Ogunsannya, ( 2004 ) in his survey found that indolence, unseriousness, incomplete course of study, fright of failure and hapless reading accomplishments were recognized by pupils as causes of scrutiny malpractices [ 10 ] . Wilayat ( 2009 ) identified several negative effects of malpractices used in scrutinies like- discourage good campaigners from analyzing difficult, deny guiltless pupils ‘ chance for admittance, detain the processing of scrutiny tonss and classs, dissatisfy campaigners, and diminish occupation efficiency [ 11 ] .
EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE IN UNIVERSITY EXAMINATION
Examination malpractice is every bit old as scrutiny itself. Yakubu and Edokpa has described scrutiny malpractice as a cankerworm [ 12 ] . In malice of stiff punishments, scrutiny malpractice is turning in springs and bounds at all degrees in educational system. Students, instructors, decision makers, parents, scrutiny invigilators and supervisors, keepers of scrutiny stuffs, functionaries of scrutiny organic structures and jurisprudence enforcement agents are involved.
Examination malpractice, as an antisocial behavior, has in recent times attracted the attending of stakeholders in the instruction industry [ 13 ] . The phenomenon has been defined in assorted ways by instructors, sociologists, philosophers, psychologists and educational decision makers. University of Port Harcourt Academic Policies [ 14 ] defines scrutiny malpractice as all signifiers of rip offing which straight or indirectly distort the ability of the pupils.
Malpractice may happen at three points, before scrutiny, during scrutiny and after scrutiny.
a. Forms of scrutiny malpractice before or after scrutinies include:
obtaining set of inquiries ;
modifying pupil ‘s mark cards, reply books and/or mark sheets ;
subjecting undertaking, laboratory and/or field study non prepared or written by the pupils themselves ;
interrupting into staff or departmental offices in order to obtain inquiry documents, reply books or grade sheets, or replacing a fresh reply book for the original books ; and beging for tester ‘s aid in order to go through scrutiny.
B. Forms of scrutiny malpractice during scrutinies include:
utilizing another individual to sit for an scrutiny on behalf of a campaigner ;
conveying in prepared answers/copying from text editions, notebooks, research lab ;
specimens or any other instructional AIDSs smuggled into the scrutiny hall ;
join forcesing with an invigilator to rip off in the scrutiny hall ;
pass oning or trying to pass on between/among testees ;
copying or trying to copy other pupil ‘s work/answers in scrutinies ;
subjecting or trying to subject a new prepared reply book as a replacement for the original book after an scrutiny ;
non-submission of reply book at the terminal of an scrutiny ;
illegal remotion of reply books from the scrutiny hall.
The usage of unjust agencies in scrutiny is a pestilence on our instruction system. Educational establishments are sing an of all time increasing tendency towards the usage of unjust agencies in scrutinies and they are unable to halt this thrust. The strength and pervasiveness of this job can be gauged from the fact that apart from the pupils, some parents excessively positively intervene and aid and ease their kids in their cheating escapades. The usage of unjust agencies in scrutinies in certain countries has so become a booming concern for the scrutiny Mafia.
Scope from escape of inquiry documents to copying, altering reply books, caricature, misconduct in scrutiny Centre, nearing invigilators/ testers, doing false entries in award list/ scrutiny registries and publishing bogus certificate/degrees etc. Such Acts of the Apostless may be loosely categorised as follows
Allotment of pick scrutiny Centre.
Appointment of pick proctoring staff.
Leaking information about inquiry documents, designation of proctoring staff and paper setters/examiners.
Bribing/influencing/terrorising scrutiny staff, invigilators and paper setters/examiners.
Possessing rip offing stuff ( written/printed/electronic device etc ) or copying from such stuff.
Giving/receiving aid to copy in scrutiny Centre.
Changing/replacing axial rotation Numberss and answer books.
Unwraping campaigners ‘ individuality in reply books.
Misconduct, transporting violative arms, refusing/resisting the lawful orders of supervisory staff, making perturbation, inciting other campaigners, endangering or assailing the invigilating staff, hindering the advancement of scrutiny, in or outside the scrutiny.
Smuggling reply books in or outside the scrutiny Centre.
Addition to reply books after scrutiny.
Manipulating Markss through fabricated entries in award list/examination registry.
SaleA of scrutiny Centre to organised packs where cheating/unfair agencies are arranged.
Helping the campaigners to utilize unjust agencies in any signifier and by any one in or outside the scrutiny Centre.
Helping the campaigners in oral voce, practical scrutiny.
Trying or abetting the committee of any of the afore-said Acts of the Apostless.
Any other act considered dishonest, unjust, corrupt etc.
Effects OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE
There are many bad effects of malpractice, it affects pupils efficiency and at the same clip the credibleness of the university is besides at interest. Some of the chief bad effects of malpractices are discussed below:
Discourage good campaigners from analyzing difficult: Good campaigners are tempted to believe ‘if Us can non crush them, fall in them ‘ particularly as they see other campaigners get off with their corrupt behaviours. ThisA behaviour may be contagious as more and more campaigners tend to fall in in scrutiny malpractice. They believe that even if they are caught, they will acquire off with it and the terminal will warrant the agencies.
Denies guiltless pupils ‘ chance for admittance: Many good pupils have been denied admittance by the corrupt 1s who through scrutiny malpractice have better tonss and classs. The best encephalons that could assist in research and development are likely to be thrown out or frustrated while seeking admittance.
Delays the processing of scrutiny tonss and classs: Every twelvemonth, many pupils are caught for prosecuting in assorted examinationsA malpracticesA which needs to be investigated before consequences areA released. Though some consequences are withheld pending the determinationA of the instances, some are decided before consequences are released. ThisA extends processing clip.
Dissatisfies campaigners: Campaigners who possess forge certifications are non bold plenty to support their certificates.. They have psychological jobs originating from the manner they acquired their certifications.
Decreases occupation efficiency: This has a serious deduction on the gross domestic merchandise of the state. It besides has consequence on the general quality and criterion. Imagine the mayhem of a half backed medical physician could bust up on human lives. What about instructors who can non competently manage the topic they are trained to learn. There is a concatenation consequence of scrutiny malpractices on the educational system and the society as a whole. A physician with bogus grade was making pattern in Mandi territory of Himachal Pradesh, Shimla, India for 15 old ages [ 15 ] .
V. EFFECTIVE USE OF ICT IN UNIVERSITY EXAMINATION SYSTEM TO CHECK MALPRACTICES
In Indian context, university system is reforming itself by presenting transparence, better direction and effectual use of ICT. The scrutiny system within a university bears the brunt of increasing figure of pupil registration whereas ICT promises better handling of informations, easiness of entree and user friendliness. However, while presenting ICT, implementing informations security is imperative otherwise it will be subjected to legion cyber menaces i.e. unauthorised revelation, alteration or devastation. The Automated Integrated Examination System ( AIES ) is need of the hr with appropriate security steps. If effectual steps and architecture are introduced in the Indian University scrutiny system, it will travel a long manner to transfuse efficiency in the scrutiny system and will be able to look into the scrutiny malpractices and deceitful Acts of the Apostless associated with the direction of scrutiny system.
Centralised database will assist in cut downing the redundancy in database in add-on to keeping consistence, unity and security of informations. The AIES will take to effectual monitoring of Examination related procedures by the concerned governments ( the possibility of happening frauds will be minimised ) . The centralized system will ease in incorporating all sections/ units/ departments/ colleges who are affiliated to the University and will convey the system under a individual umbrella. This will decidedly better the efficiency at workplace. The proposed system will make a secure, robust and lasting database of pupils who have enrolled with the university.
Issue OF PERMANENT IDENTITY CARD ( PID )
Photograph of the Student
Signature of the campaigner
Name of Student: Campaigner who are enrolled with the university and are eligible to look in the opted scrutiny will be provided with Permanent Identification Card ( PID ) . This PID will be alone figure and will be required for all the questions. PID will be supplied to the campaigner and can besides be downloaded from the web site. In PID, exposure and signature of the campaigner will be shown, which will assist in look intoing genuineness of the campaigner.
Fig. 1 Permanent Identification Number of pupil
Stairss TO CURB MALPRACTICE IN THE EXAMINATION HALL
Student ‘s enrollment
PID Card issued
Swipe through Card reader
Confirmation from Integrated Exam System through Web interface
Attendance Sheet generated
Students will be informed through electronic mail about their scrutiny Centre or he can ask about his Centre in the university web site. Card reader will be established good in progress in the test Centres. For looking in test, pupil will hold to convey PID card at the allocated Centre. He can come in in the scrutiny hall merely by swiping his PID card through card reader. After formalizing his certificates he will be allowed to come in the scrutiny hall. Authentication of an person ‘s individuality is a cardinal constituent of physical and logical entree control processes. Access mandate to computing machines and database can be authenticated through user ID and watchword, this will mean attending and formalize the individuality and verify the individual with the exposure. Students who are sitting in the scrutiny Centres have to compose PID on the reply sheets besides. It is compulsory for the pupil to compose his PID on the reply sheet otherwise his reply sheet will non be evaluated.
Fig. 2 Diagrammatic representation to swipe PID in the scrutiny Centre
Information and Communication Technologies ( ICT ) is doing an of all time stronger impact on state ‘s civilization, society, economic system and public disposal, at the macro every bit good as micro degrees. Applications of calculating engineerings and the usage of modern communicating engineerings trigger effects of wide assortment. Rapid progresss in information engineering drama a critical significance to remain connected with planetary tendencies and to stay competitory. The AIES will take to effectual monitoring of Examination related procedures by the concerned governments ( the possibility of happening frauds will be minimised ) . This system will certainly assist in cut downing mistakes which otherwise are caused by human intercession and will decidedly minimise malpractice in the scrutiny system.
Mohini is a Programmer in Computer Centre, Himachal Pradesh University. She is Master in Computer Application and prosecuting Ph. D. from Himachal Pradesh University. Her countries of involvement are Software Development and E-Governance. She can be reached at: mohini_bhardwaj @ rediffmail.com
Amar Jeet Singh has been learning in Department of Computer Science, Himachal Pradesh University Shimla, India, since 1992. At present he is designated as Associate Professor. He has done Bachelor of Engineering in Computer Technology from NIT Bhopal ( 1991 ) , M. Sc. in Distributed Information Systems from University of East London ( 1996 ) and Ph. D. from Himachal Pradesh University ( 2005 ) . His countries of involvement are E-Governance, Distributed Information Systems, ICT for Development and impact of ICT on Society. He can be reached at: aj_singh_69 @ yahoo.co.uk