There are assorted definitions of project direction among people. From the definition it can be said that undertaking direction is the activity or undertaking which is carry out with comply to the specification and criterion that have been plan to bring forth the merchandise that follow clients ‘ demands. The demand of TQM in undertaking direction was discover from this undertaking as a scheme for undertaking director to pull off their activities and employee. TQM was bettering the procedure besides bettering end merchandise with presenting the undertaking on clip, to be and specification. The quality merchandises had been deliver to the clients should continuous performs without halting at that degree merely. In this undertaking besides will explicate the stairss for TQM which may assist project director to supply the quality work for clients. There are certain standard such ISP 9000, ISO 10006, ISO 21500 province the criterion and guideline for undertaking director to pattern TQM in their work. This criterion is good for the employee every bit good as the director and it concentrate on betterment of merchandises and procedure. After that, the undertaking will explicate the demands of TQM in Project direction by utilizing the rule of TQM and presenting the Demings ‘ rhythm which is introduced by Edward Deming. He explains the importance of uninterrupted relationship between functional sections in order to supply merchandises and services that satisfy customers..
Undertaking was defined as an activity which is impermanent designed to bring forth a merchandise that alone, service or consequence ( PMI, 2000 ) . The activity which is impermanent agencies activity that Begin and stop in clip which at the terminal will bring forth the merchandise that had specific designed to accomplish remarkable end.
Andrew A.L. Tan ( 1996 ) defined undertaking as and series of undertakings or activities that have a specific aim to be completed within certain specifications. Its mean there are specific day of the month to get down until day of the month of completion for behavior activities to accomplish aim.
Douglas Scarrett ( 1983 ) defined direction as the execution of policy in determination to accomplish the aim. In organisation there are nonsubjective will be planned and its demand to pull off the work by implement the policy in order to accomplish the aim.
Project Management is a procedure whereby undertaking director work to be after and command activities and undertakings within the undertaking and use its resources such as people, stuff, clip, money, information, cognition, equipment and infinite in order to accomplish criterion and ends ( Andrew A.L. Tan, 1996 ) . It was the function of undertaking director to guarantee the work or activities are good planned and control to accomplish the aim of the organisation.
Client will anticipate that the undertaking to finish on clip with high quality and sensible cost. Undertaking director is responsible to carry through the client outlook and aim to get the client ‘s satisfaction. The quality of work are depends on the work done by undertaking director.
Harmonizing to Andrew A.L. Tan ( 1996 ) , nowadays tendencies of undertaking direction were need to use the Total Quality Management ( TQM ) and ISO 9000 Series Certification wherein presenting a undertaking on clip, to be and specifications are non merely about bettering the terminal merchandises but the procedure every bit good. Its mean the Total Quality Management is a direction work done with betterment of merchandise and procedure every bit good.
2.0 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT AS PROJECT MANAGEMENT STRATEGY
Introduction to Total Quality Management ( TQM )
TQM is the supplying construct that brings up uninterrupted betterment in organisation ( Samuel K Ho, 1995 ) . The cardinal facets of TQM are forestalling defects and accent on quality in design. The direction that applies TQM will bring forth choice merchandise that fulfill clients ‘ demand. Samuel K Ho ( 1995 ) besides defined TQM from different portion of Total, Quality, and Management which are Entire agencies everyone colleague in the company is involved in uninterrupted betterment ( including its clients and providers if executable ) , Quality means clients ‘ expressed and implied demands are met to the full, and direction agencies executives are to the full committed. Samuel agrees that the committedness from organisation to affect in the procedure was of import. In Nipponese companies they defined quality as “ supplying extraordinary client satisfaction ” ( Samuel K Ho, 1995 ) . In Japan they produce choice merchandises mean the merchandise can give the clients more than what they need.
Scheme for Entire Quality ( Ball, 1992 )
Recently building and edifice company are needed for implementing a entire quality procedure in the edifice and building industry in order to fulfill the clients ‘ demands with the engagement of both employees and subcontractors. The quality is based on the clients ‘ satisfaction, control of quality and continual betterment. There is committedness from senior direction to better quality consciousness among their employees by developing plans for employees at all degrees in the organisation and supply co-operation with providers besides formed the quality attack. Harmonizing to Ronda Bowen ( 2009 ) , there are 10 stairss for Entire Quality Management which are:
Make the new strategic thought by usage brainstorming tools among employees to come up with solutions to detect the jobs.
Knowing our clients by do the researches on their demands by create study to acquire the informations and so ability to find who our clients are. By making this, we will decidedly carry through their demands.
Puting the quality demand by the clients ‘ demand for quality of the merchandise. Its agencies to bring forth the merchandise which quality as clients ‘ demand.
The preventative action is a key for quality instead than disciplinary action which by forestalling quality jobs in the hereafter, the quality betterment procedure is less dearly-won whereas restorative is more dearly-won.
Reduce waste and beginnings of waste due to waste are anything that does non lend to the immediate demands of the undertaking.
Continuously bettering the company scheme and non discontinue it after little success. It should continuously better.
Use structured methodological analysis to better procedure without taking longer clip to calculate out how and when to better the procedure.
Reduce any fluctuation in our merchandises or services.
Balance the attack which is all sectors is having same attending.
Use the quality betterment procedure to all maps.
Harmonizing to Samuel K Ho ( 1995 ) , ISO 9000 series is a household of quality direction and quality confidence criterions developed by the International Organisation for Standardisation. As of import measure towards TQM, the director should registered their company under ISO 9000 quality direction system to show their committedness towards quality and fulfilling the demands of their clients. In fact, some 99 % of the ISO registered houses are registered under ISO 9001 or ISO 9001 which is in footings of contents ISO 9002 is sub-set of ISO 9001 ( Samuel K Ho, 1995 ) .
ISO 9000 series is one of the method that can be implement in an organisation to guarantee the clients ‘ demand are to the full met. This is the consequence in the efficient usage of resources such as stuff, people and engineering. By enfranchisement by ISO 9000, it will assurance to clients that the company can supply the needed quality merchandises and services. By publishing ISO 9000 besides can make win-win state of affairs among company and its clients due to profit addition to both parties from standard option. Harmonizing to Samuel K Ho ( 1995 ) , the following are the benefits get by both parties:
Benefits to the Company
There are benefits to the company that publishing by ISO 9000 which will increase the productiveness and the efficiency of the work done. Besides that, the benefit besides the can cut down the waste and clip to re-work and re-check by clients. The company besides will better their profitableness and their public presentation. Other than that, the benefits from ISO 9000 besides the company gained selling advantages to market their merchandise due to the constitution quality image and trust to clients. Last the benefit ISO 9000 to the company is increased the overall concern.
Benefits to the Customers
In the clients ‘ benefits from ISO 9000, it will increase the fittingness for usage the merchandise among clients. Besides that, the clients ” satisfaction towards the quality of merchandise besides will increased. The benefits from it besides saved clip for clients to re-check work done and saved clip to seek for and choice providers. The merchandise that certified by ISO 9000 besides increased the trust and assurance degree among clients.
ISO 10006 -Quality Management
ISO 10006:1997 was an international criterion which is developed by the International Organization for Standardization. It was the guidelines to quality in undertaking direction and it will assist project director to guarantee the quality of undertaking procedure and the undertaking merchandises. This guideline was applicable for undertaking director to pattern TQM due to the quality confidence of undertaking procedure and the undertaking merchandises. Besides that, it was applicable to undertakings which irrespective of the sort of merchandise and procedure involved and the undertakings of changing complexness, short or long continuance, little or big undertaking or in different environments.
ISO 21500:2012 – Guidance on Project Management
ISO 21500 was new usher to project direction which has been published in September 2012 and it can be used by any type of administration and undertaking, irrespective of complexness, size and continuance. The organisation includes public, private or community administrations. ISO 21500 was applicable to organize a good pattern in undertaking direction due to the providing of high-ranking description in constructs and procedures. The undertaking direction counsel in this criterion was applicable utilizing by new undertaking director and experienced directors in order to better undertaking success every bit good as to accomplish concern consequences. There are benefit from ISO 21500 which is promoting cognition transportation among undertakings and administrations for bettering the undertaking bringing. The other benefit of ISO 21500 is through utilizing the nomenclature of undertaking direction it will ease efficient tendering procedure. Other than that, the benefit is the ability of undertaking direction employees to work on international undertakings and in conclusion is supplying the cosmopolitan undertaking direction rules and procedures.
Entire Quality Management in Project Management
From the definition by Samuel K Ho, he states that Total Quality Management ( TQM ) is the construct that brings up uninterrupted betterment in organisation. It means the administrations with continuously procedure of betterment shows that the TQM was implemented in their administration. Harmonizing to S Somasundaram and A B Badiru ( 1992 ) the successful company will necessitate to uninterrupted betterment of their fight in all its map due to the changing of choice perceptual experiences among users. The organisation should look into every altering perceptual experience among users in order to better their map which follows up with the users ‘ perceptual experience. Nowadays, there are many organisation need undertaking direction due to the quickly progressing in engineering, increasing complexness of operations, and turning competition in the market ( S Somasundaram and A B Badiru, 1992 ) . Project direction will guarantee to accomplish this administrations ‘ end by put to deathing the undertaking within the targeted budget, in agenda and public presentation. However, besides to accomplish end, the organisation besides expect to implement undertaking that uninterrupted betterment, entire quality direction, entire productiveness direction, and others to better the quality of their merchandises and services. So that, project direction rules and techniques play a major function to guarantee the successful of these attempts by apply TQM in their plants. It was good for the undertaking direction to use TQM in their work to put to death the quality merchandise for clients. Harmonizing to S Somasundaram and A B BAdiru ( 1992 ) , in undertaking direction at that place must be continuously better the alterations in productiveness, quality, client service, and flexibleness in merchandise design and agenda. Undertaking director should supervise the work done by staff in conformity with the criterion by client start from be aftering procedure until the completion of undertaking in accomplishing the clients ‘ end.
Principles of Entire Quality Management
In TQM, there are three rules which emphasized for accomplishing the high degree of public presentation and quality which comprise of client satisfaction, employee engagement, and uninterrupted betterment in public presentation ( Krajewski, L, Ritzman, L & A ; Malhotra, M, 2010 ) . In using TQM, undertaking director should pattern these three rule in their organisation.
The first rule is client satisfaction which is accomplishing the outlook from the clients sing the merchandise and activity. In undertaking direction, clients are clients whose will anticipate the quality undertaking or merchandise. So that undertaking director should guarantee that the work procedure is conformity to specifications. The procedure without conformity with standard tends to neglect. The successful of the undertaking depends on the truth of its perceptual experiences of quality.
Another component in TQM is employee engagements which are comprise altering organisational civilization and encourage teamwork atmosphere. It was of import to make relationship between employees and clients in organisation. The contact between employees and clients are needed in order for employees to understand the clients ‘ demand. Besides that, to promote employee engagement in the organisation, undertaking director should organize squad which consist little groups of people who have a common intent with puting their ain public presentation ends and so will keep themselves for success.
The last component is uninterrupted betterment which based on Nipponese construct called kaizen. It means that the work procedure done by the undertaking director and his employee will continuous betterment. Undertaking director whose go oning to do public presentation in their work will make the satisfaction by clients and their service will be needed once more in future.
Edward Deming said it was of import for the uninterrupted relationship between functional sections to supply merchandises and services that satisfy clients. He besides was stated quality betterment as non-stop rhythm which consists of Plan-Do-Check-Action. Figure 1 illustrates Deming ‘s circle.
Plan is a procedure whereby the squad was selected the procedures which need to better and so paperss the selected procedure. The qualitative ends for betterment were sets and discourse the assorted ways to accomplish the ends. After measuring the options of the benefits and costs, the squad so will develops a program with quantifiable steps for betterment.
Do is the procedure that the program will implement by squad and the advancement will supervise. During this procedure, informations will be continuously collected in order to mensurate the betterment of the procedure. If any alterations in the procedure exist, the alterations so will documented for farther alterations.
Study is the procedure for squad to analyse the information which collected during the ‘do ‘ measure to happen out either the consequences correspond to the ends that had been set up at be aftering measure. If there are major failing exist, the re-evaluate of program will be done.
Act is the last measure which is if the consequences are successful, the revised procedure were documented in order to go as a standard process for all who may utilize it. The squad so instructs other employees in utilizing the revised procedure.
Figure 1. Deming ‘s PDCA circle
Presents client or clients require the merchandise or service that have quality public presentation besides undertaking complete on clip and cut down cost. So that, it was of import for the undertaking director to use the Total Quality Management ( TQM ) in their undertaking to guarantee that the clients ‘ satisfaction will to the full run into. Project director should guarantee that the undertaking are complete on clip with choice merchandise and cut down cost. The quality of merchandise besides should continuous betterment which non discontinue after little success. Continuous betterment will make the best position from the client that believes our company can bring forth good quality for the undertaking and it will increase confident degree among client. Customers will get the merchandise that have good quality and can be uninterrupted usage without harm. to bring forth choice merchandise, we should guarantee that the undertaking will give more than what the client demand. The quality was started at the be aftering stairss until the completion of the undertaking. Good undertaking director will conformance the criterion to every work which traveling to make by their employee. There are three rules which benefits for undertaking directors whose tends to use TQM in his direction which comprise of client satisfaction, employee engagement, and uninterrupted betterment in public presentation.