Online intelligence media is a quite recent phenomenon in the print media history, implanting and encompassing the progress of the cyberspace, and the ability of the mean individual to non merely hold entree to engineering, but besides to lend to it. Normally, user demands ever the of import factor in the development of engineering. Different theories have explained and examined that “ why ” of why people do what they do. In short, how do people do determinations? What factors influence people picking their ain picks? In itself, the survey of decision-making is complicated and exists in assortment academic country.
In the facet of Information engineering, batch of different theoretical accounts has been proposed to explicate why and how people come choose implanting engineering into their lives. Most of decision-making at the personal degree and see with much subjectiveness. However, there is batch of infinite remain to this academic inquiry and therefore the facet of theoretical account under the rubric of “ engineering entree theoretical accounts ” exists from which to prove relevant hypotheses on assorted facets of engineering.
The “ cyberspace ” and “ on-line media ” incorporate many facets of information engineering. Because of the inquiry of information engineering every bit far as on-line content in any signifier involves an exchange of thoughts in a really new market place, we are non merely to place particulars of the market place, we besides need to specify the user.
In this paper, the rubric of on-line intelligence media is tested through using a engineering entree theoretical account known as the “ Lazy User Model ” to explicate the inquiry “ Why people choose on-line intelligence media as their desired intelligence beginnings than traditional print media? ”
Research Question and Hypotheses
The purpose of this research is find out whether the Lazy User Model of engineering credence is a suited rating tool to find the popularity of on-line intelligence beginnings in Hong Kong. This paper inquiry “ what are the factors that contribute to doing on-line intelligence media beginnings popular in Hong Kong? ”
Three hypotheses will be tested which use the Lazy User Model in order to reply the inquiry:
1. The user ‘s demands determine whether they will take online than traditional print version.
2. The user ‘s province determines whether they will take online than traditional print version.
3. The user will take the solution ( on-line version or paper version ) that necessitating the least attempt.
In order to proving these hypotheses, the background of the Lazy User Model will be stated. And garnering necessary informations through study questionnaire tool as research methodological analysis, discourse how the consequences of the study should be analyzed, harmonizing the consequence to supply a recommendation.
Definitions and Concepts
Information Technology is defined as “ the industry or subject affecting the aggregation, airing, and direction of informations, typically through the usage of computing machines ” ( Network, 2010 ) . The significance of IT is touchable, applicable sense twenty old ages ago. But, It was changed, it was different than today. Nowadays, Information Technology holding some significance like progressive and rapid growing, in term of what it mean/is and what it can make. From two points of position, Information Technology intending different to different users, particularly from the point of view of concern and the point of view of the terminal user, furthermore the concern mark.
IT has changed the manner we communicate with others, for illustration, utilizing nomadic phones or other nomadic devices, geographic information systems that for personal usage ( GPRS in auto ) , online chat room and societal networking sites, forum, every bit good as how information is transportation to stop user. In fact, information engineering has made it non merely easier, but quicker, to convey and circulate information. ( Johnson, 1997 ) .It includes on-line media beginnings.
On-line Media mean digital media working in digital codifications ( does n’t wish traditional parallel codifications ) . Digital Media Alliance Florida defines digital media as “ the originative convergence of digital humanistic disciplines, scientific discipline, engineering and concern for human look, communicating, societal interaction and instruction ” ( Digital Media Alliance of Florida, 2010 ) . Therefore, the IT subdivision of on-line digital media comprises online intelligence beginnings. Peoples have been relaying information to others about current occurrences for 1000s of old ages, in the best information engineering available in their twenty-four hours, whether they were composing on coop wall or set uping a new web log. Information passed along in the easiest and fastest possible method. Travel back to the commercial society, concern that rely on net income influence the reply of inquiry why people would take one media than another, the best Information technology of their twenty-four hours. For intent to contract down the range of this research undertaking, the paper will concentrate on on-line intelligence beginnings, specifically in the Hong Kong part.
Hong Kong is an international fiscal commercialism leader. It is recognized. So that, Hong Kong besides a possible gateway to taking inventions in information engineering, including on-line media intelligence beginnings. With a tech-savvy population, the potency for Hong Kong to be a universe theoretical account in on-line information airing is high ( Leung, Chen & A ; Chan,2003 ) .
Different communicating theories try to explicate why people choose one signifier of communicating over another, with psychological and behavioural issues that will non be discussed in this paper. Two countries of enquiry are related for intents of this research undertaking in adverting communicating theories. These are the “ internationalisation ” of mass communicating flow and “ the technological alteration and convergence ” , as the boundaries dividing mass communicating from other signifiers for communicating becomes less clear ( Chyi & A ; Lasorsa, 1999 ) . The development of online newspapers is the most related illustration of this country.
The user is defined as the consumer of the merchandise. In here, it is the reader of the intelligence beginning. The intelligence beginning in inquiry is on-line intelligence media in Hong Kong. Therefore, the user is the Hong Kong intelligence reader utilizing a computing machine to entree on-line intelligence beginnings in Hong Kong. Geographic issues may restrict user entree to online intelligence beginnings. Computers and/or internet entree may be limited or restricted, either through geographic limitations, or other limitations such as fundss, cognition of how to utilize a computing machine, or other limitations that possibly flux from government-controlled media content ( Muellr & A ; Kamerer, 1995 ) .
Media in Hong Kong refers specifically to online intelligence media that is in Hong Kong. This includes local online newspapers, local intelligence web logs, and does non include international intelligence web sites or anything of an international exterior of Hong Kong.
Technology Acceptance is an information systems theoretical account that explains how a user accepts and uses engineering. he engineering credence theoretical account ( TAM ) helps to place the causal relationships between a systems design characteristics, perceived usefulness, sensed easiness of usage, attitude toward utilizing, and existent use behaviour in finding what factors should be examined in either the survey of the history of engineering usage or the anticipation for future engineering usage ( Davis, 1993 ) .
1.3 Boundary lines
Because of intents of this research undertaking, boundary lines is use to restrict the range of the question for those constructs. Specifically, because of we are seeking to use a theoretical account of engineering credence called the lazy user theoretical account in explicating the grounds of people choose to utilize on-line newspapers as their primary intelligence beginning in Hong Kong, some country, job, factor are specifying in fact. The undermentioned point will non see and covered in this research paper: –
International intelligence sites.
Social networking sites as beginnings of “ intelligence ”
Psychological theoretical accounts of behavior
Alternate methodological analysiss that could garner the necessary informations outside of a study questionnaire design tool.
The boundary lines of the research undertaking are non comprehensive in range. However, the preceding boundary lines are non covered in this study, and hence should non be mistaken to be omitted by mistake of ignorance.
1.4 Overview of the Research Project
This research survey continues with an in-depth literature reappraisal of information engineering and the cyberspace, engineering credence theoretical accounts, on-line media, and the digital Hong Kong market place. Following the literature reappraisal is a debut of the methodological analysis to analyze the hypotheses listed and supply the development of on-line media. Beside of it can assist to understand the rapid growing of cyberspace and on-line media, it besides a ground to explicate why we focus to Online intelligence, because of under this competitory industry, any information to assist addition clients is needed. The study questionnaire design is use to garner informations to be used in the lazy user theoretical account trial. Finally, a decision and recommendation will finish this research undertaking.
2. Literature Reappraisal
Information Technology and the Internet
Information Technology has changed our universe in many different countries, from world ‘s first stairss into infinite, to the development of consumer points of convenience. In the beginning of twentieth century, common people can non entree and afford computing machines, and at that clip computing machine were used merely for information processing and logical computations on a big companies and military. Indeed, military did the information age Begin to develop, with the demand for advanced military operations driving the information engineering race.
As a consequence of the engineering race, a rapid growing of online applications has arisen with the cyberspace coming. Knowledge related to the Internet and World Wide Web are going critical in depicting the parametric quantities related to different applications ; these include more advanced engineerings such as Web interface, book linguistic communications, and Internet protocols. Web developers and IT professionals may happen it disputing to run into the demands of the quickly germinating province of these engineerings ( Chau, Wong, Zhou, Qin, & A ; Chen, 2009 ) .
Many companies use information engineering and the cyberspace to assist streamline the organisational workings and enhance grosss ( Ozcelik, 2010 ) . However at that place remain challenges in even conveying some groups of people and concern up to rush. Business and people who have no entree to computing machines and related engineerings, will non be able to run into the rapid turning demands on the planetary concern terminal, but besides will non able to run into the personal user demands of information engineering and cyberspace related merchandises and services. Many states in the underdeveloped universe battle to supply adequate basic engineering in certain countries, including phone lines, satellite service or nomadic phone signal transceiver station. Companies in such states may be unable to vie efficaciously in the market with a deficiency of information engineering substructure because of geographic or other restrictions. This non merely has a negative consequence but besides decelerate down a company ‘s future growing ; thereby cut downing opportunities of employment chances for others every bit good as being a faltering rock of advancement in thee information age of technological promotion ( Choudrie, Grey, & A ; Tsitsianis, 2010 ) .
The Internet is a “ web of webs ” , associating 1000000s of computing machines and hence 1000000s of users together from around the universe. This engineering allows informations to be transferred from one side of the universe to the other in a msecs, it is including E-mail, instant messaging, files sharing and web browse and other signifiers of information sharing and airing, including the distribution of intelligence both local and planetary ( Vangorp & A ; Middleton, 2009 ) .
Before the cyberspace available, networked communications between computing machines was really limited, two computing machines could portion merely little sums of informations via a cardinal mainframe. As antecedently mentioned, by monolithic authorities support and by the unmanageable thrust of corporate profit-making and international commercialism, the demand for information engineering, better and faster computing machine, a linguistic communication and locale to reassign and hive away information, has all led to an highly complex but user-friendly simplistic application that cover the truth of the new coevals of engineering that created it ( Leiner, et al. , 2009 ) .
Information engineering and the rise of the cyberspace has been a convergence of on-line capableness due to the progresss in computing machine engineering and networking, and technological self-interest driven by market forces and user demands ( Bellaaj, 2010 ) .
Therefore, concerns try to maximise organisational effectivity through usage of information engineering, and user besides seek to maximise what users are ever seeking to maximise: their ain demands. Many different theoretical accounts appear that effort to fulfill both terminals of the spectrum ; Business demands and User demands. The study is non traveling analyze how to fulfill the concern side. Rather, this undertaking will look at the position of user demands through using a theoretical account of engineering credence: the lazy user theoretical account.
2.2 Technology Acceptance Models
2.2.1 The Lazy User Model
The lazy user theoretical account was presented by Collan in 2007 and was further developed by Collan and Tetard in 2007 ( Collan & A ; Tetard, 2007 ) . This theoretical account was created to concentrate on the user, as the chief supreme authority of engineering credence. Most of the bing chief theories in credence research centred on the construct of engineering. The lazy user theoretical account is different. The lazy user theoretical account, on the other manus, put concentration on the demands and features of the user in the procedure of solution choice. Furthermore, the theory focuses on the attempt demanded by the user ( user attempt ) , when choosing a solution to a job from a set of possible solutions. Harmonizing to the lazy user theoretical account, a user is likely to take the solution that requires the least attempt ( Collan and Tetard 2007 ; Collan and Tetard 2009 ) . The lazy user theoretical account tells us that whether or non people accept a engineering depends on the rule of least attempt. Otherwise known as the way of least opposition, we see this is go oning built-in in mundane physical phenomena. The rule of least attempt finds support besides in consequences from medical research, which has found grounds for the human encephalon using the jurisprudence of least attempt when work outing a job ( Reichle, Carpenter, & A ; Just, 2000 ) . The choice between one solution and another is known as “ Switch overing Cost ” , which tell us that the user examines this cost in footings of clip, energy and money when sing how to utilize a new solution. The Lazy User Model can be merely present as the undermentioned diagram ( Collan & A ; Tetard, 2009 ) .
Figure 1. Lazy user theory of solution choice
( Lazy User Theory A Dynamic Model to Understand User Selection of Products and Services )
126.96.36.199 Example – Consequence of the Game
An involvement in motion of nomadic phone users already have a stake on the consequence of the game, and know the game is over. He / she would wish to cognize, every bit shortly as possible, if she / he won. The user demand is, so, information on the concluding consequence of the game every bit shortly as possible. The overall possible ways of acquiring the information are legion, nevertheless, if we assume that two user in different state of affairss ( A ) the user sitting in forepart of the couch watching Television at place and ( B ) the user is in airdrome and waiting for abroad,
there are different set of possible ways to get the consequence of the game. ( Collan & A ; Tetard, 2009 ) .
Apply Lazy user theory of solution choice to the example- consequence of the game
In user state of affairs ( A ) there are eight different possible solutions that we assume the user has ( wireless, TV-news, teletext, name friend and inquire, newspaper following forenoon, cyberspace, and SMS result service ) . In user state of affairs ( B ) the set of possible solutions is limited because of the nomadic phone ( name friend and inquire, nomadic cyberspace, SMS consequence service ) and cyberspace at the airdrome at an elevated cost. ( Collan & A ; Tetard, 2009 ) .
In user state of affairs ( A ) the user picks that offer the least attempt are teletext ( the user is sitting on a couch with a distant control nearby ) , an SMS result-service and TV-news.
Because of there are opportunity that TV-news may be demoing the consequence outright, which make ticker TV-news is the least attempt solution, nevertheless, if this is non the instance and the user ever acquire information by teletext ( experient user of teletext ) , so that the teletext become the least attempt solution. However, if the user acquire information less by teletext even ne’er use it and there are no TV-news that would supply the consequence of the game, the least attempt solution will go SMS service. ( Collan & A ; Tetard, 2009 ) .
Up to now, It look like that there may be really similar set of solution in low degree of attempt, which user hard to do the choice of the solution. In this instance, the user may be familiar solution is to find the factors, for example. , if the user is non accustomed to utilizing teletext and is accustomed to utilizing the SMS service, so that the least attempt solution go SMS service even if the user sitting in forepart of the telecasting. In any instance, it is most likely that the user will choose one of the three solutions identified here as the least attempt solutions.
In user state of affairs ( B ) the user has a more restricted set of possible solution and the least attempt solution is the SMS service. The set of solutions are possible, determined by the conditions of the user. ( Collan & A ; Tetard, 2009 ) .
If the user demands are unreserved / unconditioned, for illustration, wholly “ every bit shortly as possible ” so that the set of possible solution merely the solution will fulfill the demand fastest, in state of affairs ( B ) the SMS service. In add-on, the conditions is ill-defined, and the user demand every bit shortly as possible in fact means “ in the close hereafter ” or “ shortly ” so that the set of possible solution is besides ill-defined.
One possible deduction of the illustration is found Demand for case, will be unconditioned aid Recognition service, users will hold a high degree Attachment, because they satifised their ( unreserved / unconditional ) need better. ( Collan & A ; Tetard, 2009 ) .
2.2.2 Theory of Reasoned Action
The theory of sound actions ( TRA ) was presented by Fishbein and Ajzen in 1975. The beginnings of the theory come from the survey of societal psychological science. This country attempts to explicate why attitude may impact behavior. The theory of sound actions seeks to explicate and even predict behaviors based on the beliefs, attitudes and purposes of people. An single behavior is a consequence of these three mentioned factors harmonizing to the theory of sound actions theoretical account. In extra, Harmonizing to Fishbein and Ajzen in 1975 tell us that behavior is driven by behavioral purpose. A individual purpose come from the attitude of the behavior. Furthermore, the behavior in add-on to the topic norms, are besides affected. During individual ‘s life-time, many different beliefs can impact attitudes. Descriptive beliefs can be formed by personal experience, or gained by absorbing outside information. Specifically, you think an object is sympathetic, because you have better or positive feeling about it, you think an object is unsympathetic, because you have bad or negative feeling about it. Hence, each single individual makes an appraisal about the consequence of different behaviors. Indeed, the individual will measure the advantage of these results either a positive or negative association with it. The undermentioned chart is merely introduced The theory of sound actions.
Attitude toward the behaviour
The individual ‘s beliefs that the behavior leads to certain results and his/her ratings of these results
Relative importance of attitudinal and normative considerations
The individual ‘s beliefs that specific persons or groups think he/she should or should non execute the behaviour and his/her motive to follow
The Theory of sound actions theoretical account. This theoretical account reports behavior as a consequence of purpose to demo, which is prompted by the attitude toward the subjective norm. ( Adapted from Ajzen and Fishbein, 1975 )
2.2.3 Technology Acceptance Model
The engineering credence theoretical account ( TAM ) is an version of the theory of sound action, it was developed for the country of information systems ( Davis 1986 ) .The engineering credence theoretical account substitutes attitude about the behavior and subjective norm of the theory of sound actions with two engineering credence steps ; the sensed easiness of usage and the sensed utility. The engineering credence theoretical account focal point on how sensed easiness of usage and perceived usefulness affect the purpose to utilize and existent usage of engineering ( Davis, Bagozzi and Warshaw 1989, p. 985 ) . Perceived easiness of usage is described as “ the grade to which an person believes that utilizing a peculiar system would be free of physical and mental attempt ” ( Davis, 1986, p. 477 ) .
Perceived easiness of usage has a causal and important consequence on the sensed utility, which is defined as “ the grade to which an person believes that utilizing a peculiar system would heighten his or her occupation public presentation ” ( Davis, 1986, p. 477 ) .This theoretical account told us that a individual will be free to move when they have formed the purpose to really move. However, several factors, such as societal or environmental restrictions, may impact whether or non the single individual will move ( Bagozzi 2007 ) .
Perceived Usefulness ( U )
Behavioral Intention to Use ( BI )
Using ( A )
Perceived Ease of Use ( E )
This is the engineering credence theoretical account ( TAM ) . ( Davis et al, pg. 985 ) This chart demo the basic logic of engineering credence theoretical account.
2.2.4 Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology
The incorporate theory of credence and usage of engineering ( UTAUT ) was presented by
Venkatesh et Al in 2003. This theoretical account tries to explicate the user purpose to utilize an information system, every bit good as attendant behavior of users. A batch of different viing theories have been combined in an effort to bring forth a more adept theoretical account of user behavior ( Venkatesh et al 2003 ) .
The incorporate theory of credence and usage of engineering theory maintain that four concepts play an of import function as decisive factor of user credence and user behavior. These concepts are public presentation anticipation, attempt anticipation, societal influence and facilitating conditions. The first three concepts create a behavioral purpose to move and, hence, these three concepts affect use behavior. The last concept, easing conditions, does non impact user purposes, but it instantly influence usage behavior. Beside of that four concepts that straight impact utilize behavior, there are other four factors that indirectly impact behavioral purpose and utilize behavior. The four factors are gender, age, experience and voluntariness of usage. Each factor impacts one or more than one of four concepts ( Venkatesh et al 2003 ) .
The incorporate theory of credence and usage of engineering theoretical account. Factors impacting behavioral purpose and usage behaviour ( Venkatesh et al 2003, p. 447 ) .
The incorporate theory of credence and usage of engineering explains facets of the user ‘s features, every bit good as some conditions at the clip of the possible action to utilize a certain system or map. Furthermore, it surveies the measuring of willingness of the user, this a particular point that other theories is non mentioned. The focal point of the incorporate theory of credence and usage of engineering is on utilizing one applied scientific discipline or engineering ( Venkatesh et al 2003 ) .
2.2.5 Cognitive Fit Theory
Cognitive tantrum theory ( CFT ) was developed by Iris Vessey. This comes from a general theory of job resolution ( Vessey 1991, p. 220 ) . Cognitive fit positions that job resolution is “ an result of the relationship between job representation and problem-solving undertaking ” ( Vessey 1991, p. 220 ) . Harmonizing to cognitive tantrum theory, the solution to a job is inferred from mental representation, which is composed from the job representation and the job work outing undertaking, and interaction between these two ( Vessey 1991, p. 221 ) .
The theory said that when some informations which have a similar type are provided by both undertaking and representation, these procedures create a similar mental representation. Therefore, this mental representation besides uses matching procedures to make a job solution. Therefore, the procedure used to move on the representation and easing the undertaking lucifer will be superior to any undertaking that is non facilitated.
2.2.5 Cognitive Fit Model
The problem-solver can non utilize like procedures for moving on a job representation and work outing the job when the job representation and the undertaking do non fit. When this state of affairs happens, the problem-solver is non conveying to job work outing options, instead they are force them. Harmonizing Vessy said, a instance like this consequences in a public presentation that is worse in instances where the job convergent thinker is given the representation concentrating on that type of information to utilize for a alone instance.
Cognitive tantrum theory chiefly focuses on how to do a tantrum between undertaking and job representation in order to do a better public presentation. It enables the possibility of proving distinguishable engineerings to better the solution. Despite the theory does non look at features or the experience of the user.
Cognitive Fit Model ( pg221 )
2.2.6 Technology Task Fit Model
The undertaking engineering tantrum ( TTF ) theory infusions from two complementary surveies of research ; user attitudes as forecasters of use and task-technology tantrum as a forecaster of public presentation. ( Goodhue and Thompson 1995, pg213 ) The theory addresses that for engineering to hold a positive impact on single public presentation, the engineering which must suit the undertaking that the user must execute, and that the engineering must be utilized ( Goodhue and Thompson 1995 ) .
There are four factors influence public presentation were identified in order to mensurate the undertaking engineering fit theoretical account: Undertaking features ( non-routineness, mutuality and occupation rubric ) ( Goodhue and Thompson 1995, pg222 ) , Technology features ( measured focussing on the information system used ) , Utilization ( the proportion of times users choose to use systems, or the sensed dependance on a system ) ( Goodhue and Thompson 1995, pg223 ) , and public presentation impact ( the perceived impact on effectivity, productiveness and public presentation ) ( Goodhue and Thompson 1995, pg223 ) .
The undertaking engineering fit theoretical account. Harmonizing the undertaking engineering tantrum theory, a tantrum between undertaking and engineering features can assist to better public presentation.
The tantrum can be tested with mensurating eight specific factors identified by Goodhue and Thompson. The eight of import factors for mensurating undertaking engineering tantrum are “ informations quality, locatability of informations, mandate to entree informations, informations compatibility ( between systems ) , developing and easiness of usage, production seasonableness, systems dependability, and relationship with users, all of them can be measured utilizing two to ten inquiries ” ( Goodhue and Thompson 1995, p. 221 ) .
188.8.131.52 Task-Technology Fit Measures
CURR1 – I ca n’t acquire informations that is current plenty to run into my concern demands.
CURR2 – The information is up to day of the month sufficiency for my intents.
RDAT1 – The informations maintained by the corporation or division is reasonably much what I need to transport out my undertakings.
RDAT2 – The computing machine systems available to me are losing critical informations that would be really utile to me in my occupation.
Right Level Of Detail:
RLEV1 – The company maintains informations at an appropriate degree of item for my group ‘s undertakings.
RLEV2-Sufficiently elaborate informations is maintained by the corporation.
Locatability of informations
LOCT1-It is easy to happen out what data the corporation maintains on a given topic.
LOCT2-It is easy to turn up corporate or divisional informations on a peculiar issue, even if I have n’t used that informations earlier.
MEAN1-The exact definition of informations Fieldss associating to my undertakings is easy to happen out.
MEAN2-On the studies or systems I deal with, the exact significance of the information elements is either obvious, or easy to happen out.
Mandate to entree informations
AUTH1-Data that would be utile to me is unavailable because I do n’t hold the right mandate.
AUTH2-Getting mandate to entree informations that would be utile in my occupation is clip devouring and hard.
Data compatibility ( between systems )
COMP1-There are times when I find that purportedly tantamount informations from two different beginnings is inconsistent.
COMP2-Sometimes it is hard for me to compare or consolidate informations from two different beginnings because the information is defined otherwise.
COMP3-When it ‘s necessary to compare or consolidate informations from different beginnings, I find that there may be unexpected or hard incompatibilities.
PROD1-Information system, to my cognition, meets its production agendas such as study bringing and running scheduled occupations.
PROD2-Regular Information system activities ( such as printed study bringing or running scheduled occupations ) are completed on clip.
RELY1-I can number on the system to be “ up ” and available when I need it.
RELY2-The computing machine systems I use are capable to unexpected or inconvenient down times which makes it harder to make my work.
RELY3-The computing machine systems I use are capable to patronize jobs and clangs.
Training and easiness of usage
Ease of usage of hardware and package:
EASE1 – It is easy to larn how to utilize the computing machine systems I need.
EASE2 – The computing machine systems I use are convenient and easy to utilize.
TRNG1 – There is non adequate preparation for me or my staff on how to happen, understand entree or utilize the company computing machine systems.
TENG2 – I am acquiring the preparation I need to be able to utilize company computing machine systems, linguistic communications, processs and informations efficaciously.
Relationship with Users
Information system apprehension of concern:
UNBS1 – The Information system people we deal with understand the twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours aims of my work group and its mission within our company.
UNBS2 – My work group feels that Information system forces can pass on with us in familiar concern footings that are consistent.
Information system involvement and dedication:
INDN1 – Information system takes my concern group ‘s concern jobs earnestly.
INDN2 – Information system takes a existent involvement in assisting me work out my concern jobs.
RESP1 – It frequently takes excessively long for Information system to pass on with me on my petitions.
RESP2 – I by and large know what happens to my petition for Information system services or aid or whether it is being acted upon.
RESP3 – When I make a petition for service or aid Information system usually responds to my petition in a timely mode.
CONS1 – Based on my old experience I would utilize Information system proficient and concern planning consulting services in the hereafter if I had a demand.
CONS2 – I am satisfied with the degree of proficient and concern planning consulting expertness I receive from Information system.
Information system Performance:
PERF1 – Information system delivers agreed upon solutions to back up my concern demands.
The undertaking engineering fit theory tell us mensurating these eight factors can cognize the possible failings in the tantrum. A better tantrum is expected to make improved public presentation impacts, and a worse fit leads to poorer public presentation. Task engineering tantrum in the center of tantrum between public presentation, undertaking and engineering features ( Goodhue and Thompson 1995 ) .
2.2.7 Diffusion of invention
The Diffusion of Innovations theory was presented by Roger in 1962. It was developed to accommodate for most inventions, across industries and engineerings. Harmonizing the theory, there are four important elements in the analysis of the diffusion of inventions. The invention ( something that is new to the person ) , its communicate from one person to another societal system ( a group of people and engaged in corporate behaviour ) over clip. In this state of affairs, communicating is synonymous with diffusion, by which an invention broadcasts from the beginning to concluding user. Time of the acceptance procedure includes the user stages awareness, involvement, rating, test and acceptance.
The diffusion of an invention is affected by the group of individual meeting the invention, in add-on to the five factors impacting the user ‘s construct of the invention. A individual ‘s willingness to accept the invention, chiefly due to their features. Person in one of five classs of single innovativeness – pioneers, early adoptive parents, early bulk, late bulk or dawdlers – depending on their willingness to follow inventions.
Furthermore, the manner that invention is perceived influence the rate of acceptance. This perceptual experience is found in footings of comparative advantage – the grade to which an invention is superior to ideas it supersedes, compatibility – the grade to which an invention is consistent with bing values and past experiences, complexness – the grade to which an invention is comparatively hard to understand and utilize, divisibility – subsequently trialability ; the grade to which an invention may be tried on a limited footing and communicability – subsequently observability ; the grade to which the consequences of an invention may be diffused or communicated to others of the invention ( Rogers 1962, pp. 124-132 )
A research worker belive that Diffusion of invention was missing in descriptive range and added more factors. Logically, diffusion of invention in information systems uses eight factors impacting the acceptance of inventions ; trialability, comparative advantage, compatibility, voluntariness ( the grade to which usage of the invention is perceived as being voluntary ) , image ( the grade to which usage of an invention is perceived to heighten one ‘s image or position in one ‘s societal system ) , easiness of usage, consequence provability ( the more the invention is demonstrated and the more seeable the advantages are, the more likely it is to be adopted ) and visibleness ( the existent visibleness of the invention ) ( Moore and Benbasat 1991, p. 195 ) .
The diffusion of invention in information system theoretical account. The execution of information system is chiefly due to proficient compatibility, proficient complexness and comparative advantage. In diffusion of invention, it focus on one engineering and how the usage of the specific engineering diffuses to other users.
2.3 Development of Online Media
On-line media is a convergence of the rapid growing of engineering, and the altering face of the media frontier. David Shedden, Library Director of the Poynter Institute has constructed a timeline which for intents of this study, is offered in a factual timeline mode, and will be condensed as follows ( Shedden, 2010 ) :
1969: ARPANET is commissioned by the US Government, which is created by Department of Defense military undertaking. ARPANET is an experimental web of four computing machines housed at four different universities across the United States. The first trial is run on 1969. ARPANET evolve during the 1970s into a web of computing machine webs normally known as the Internet.The British Broadcasting System launches an synergistic application of artworks and text. In 1969, Honeywell offers a $ 10,000 “ kitchen computing machine ” . Compuserve establishes a computing machine time-sharing service which plays a major function in on-line communicating development. The New York Times establishes ‘Infobank ‘ , an electronic database of NYT narratives.
1970: Alohanet is the first radio computing machine networking system, was developed by NormA AbramsonA at the University of Hawaii. Alohanet is a package wireless web system. News transcript is sent from a computing machine terminus in South Carolina, to a computing machine terminus in Atlanta.
1975: The first personal computing machine for public ingestion called Altair 8800 offered at $ 495. The Compuserve dial-up company becomes an independent, publically held company. Gallic telecasting begins proving a teletext service.
1980: Novell announced local country web package will be developed. IBM continues to develop the first successful personal computing machine. Bill Gates and Microsoft hold the licensing rights to the freshly developed MS-DOS system. The Compuserve dial-up service begins working with 11 Associated Press member newspapers. Teletext tests continue to develop popularity among intelligence agencies/news media.
1985: In March of 1985, the first.com cyberspace name is registered. Microsoft released The Windows Operating System. Intel produces a 32-bit microprocessor bit, which is a paradigm of microprocessor to increase velocity by following coevals processors. Quantum Computer Service establishes an on-line service for Commodore 64 and 128 computing machines. Quantum would subsequently go America Online. The PressLink service is founded by Knight Ridder.
1990: The World Wide Web paradigm is created at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics. The Windows 3.0 OS is released by Microsoft. Around 165 newspapers have electronic versions available for public ingestion.
1995: The NSFNET computing machine web is transitioned to new web architecture. It heralds a major measure in the growing of the commercial Internet. Amazon.com begins service. Lot of newspapers offer on-line narratives. Microsoft release Windows 95 with internet adventurer.
2000: Computer virus and worms, web sales/e commence, and cyberspace usage is normal linguistic communication in current events discourse. E-commence and “ Cyber News ” develop quickly.
2005: User-generated online intelligence services are available. Youtube and Google Earth launches. MySpace is popular. News web logs by popular intelligence beginnings are common. “ Look into internet and the image for news media seems fractured. There is existent hope in the Numberss of people who seek intelligence online, peculiarly the immature, a group that shows light involvement in traditional media. The capableness of people to acquire what they want when they want it, and to pull strings it, edit it and seek more deepness, could convey a needful resurgence to news media. The economic Numberss are besides turning – and dramatically – each twelvemonth. ” ( Source: “ The State of the News Media: On-line Section. ” Undertaking for Excellence in Journalism, 2005. )
2010: Harmonizing to CMM ‘s Ed Payne: “ These yearss, when everyone seems to hold a Facebook friend, is LinkedIn or can Google themselves, it ‘s difficult to retrieve the old yearss, before the dot-com revolution. It was 25 old ages ago — March 15, 1985 — that the first point com sphere name — Symbolics.com — appeared on the Internet, showing in the commercial age of the World Wide Web. ” ( Related narratives from the San Francisco Chronicle, Wired, BBC, Fortune, a Face book page, and the site observing the twenty-fifth day of remembrance of.com. )
2.4 Relevant factors in Hong Kong
Hong Kong is an international market place with the same place with New York. The population of Hong Kong is 6.97 million in 2008 and anticipate maintain increasing stably.
( The World Bank, 2010 )
High degrees of income of the population is considered by the World Bank development indexs informations. And Index of Economic Freedom has ranked Hong Kong as the ‘freest ‘ economic systems of the developed capitalist universe. ( The Heritage Foundation, 2010 ) .
Hong Kong is a theoretical account of a topographic point where engineering would happen a strong bridgehead. The population is educated and populating in a booming civilization of trade, finance, and growing.
3. Methodology and the Lazy User Model Survey
3.1 Reason of utilizing a Survey Questionnaire
The ground of utilizing a study questionnaire because in order to assist replying the hypothesis. And the hypothesis is about the user decision-making. So that, utilizing questionnaire is the easiest and most direct to cognize user sentiment. Furthermore, there can set some image into the questionnaire to explicate the inquiry to increase truth of information ( Forza, 2000 ) .
3.2 The Survey Questionnaire Information
The study will direct out through electronic mail and via face to confront interview with people utilizing cyberspace in java store. There will be minimal ask for 50 people. The age of the respondents was between 18-30 old ages of age. These 50 people reflects public that usage cyberspace get information, and derive utile information on the lazy user study. ( Network,2009 )
Because of this survey focal point on 18-30 old ages of age people, harmonizing to market research, face to confront interview will be held in Starbucks. Starbucks targets both males and females, chiefly 18-30 twelvemonth olds. It complete fit our mark respondent and easy to happen respondent for the interview. Indeed, Starbucks besides provide traditional newspaper free of charge and supply free Wifi. User can read on-line intelligence via free Wifi ( Maxhz, 2005 ) ( Network, 2010 ) .
The Lazy User Model Survey has three chief parts. Part one asks respondents what factors affect them when taking a solution to work out a job. Separate two assume the respondents in a specific state of affairss and force respondent making-decision with limited options. Respondents chiefly answer why they choose the pick. The concluding portion, Part three, asks respondents about their wont and usage of on-line newspapers. A concluding inquiry asks respondents if the Lazy User Model comports with their thought job work outing. During interview, research worker will explicate the inquiry until the respondents to the full understand what the inquiry inquiring, if answering non understand, that questionnaire will go invalid.
In portion I, inquiry 2 and 4 reply has eight factors are reflecting to Technology Acceptance Model and Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology to explicate purpose to utilize. ( Venkatesh et al 2003 ) ( Davis, 1986, p. 26 )
Factors in TAM and UTAUT
Effort anticipation / Perceived easiness of usage
Performance anticipation / Perceived Usefulness
Voluntariness of Use
Age, Gender, Performance anticipation / Perceived Usefulness
Experience, Age, Gender
In Part II, the first inquiry ( # 6 ) ask respondents what version of newspaper will take and straight inquire for the ground that affect in every different state of affairs and how to work out job. This is in order to acquire the accurate reply from user and so analysis and kind out with Lazy user theory factors. The 2nd inquiry ( # 7 ) , offer respondents a set of state of affairss and possible options to take from. The state of affairss are as day-to-day life as possible and it is likely to go on but it need to be clear, opposite and fit to online intelligence and traditional newspaper. In extra, beside of attempt, other any factor demand to be just, for the analysis truth. So, the state of affairs is aassume that respondents are in Hong Kong and answering demand to read a characteristic available in either the printed newspaper or an on-line version of the same newspaper. The state of affairs is described in the illustration below. respondent can purchase a walk 1/2km to the nearest newsstand, or measure into the Starbucks behind user and wage to utilize their radio cyberspace for respondent ‘s laptop. And so, respondents need to supply what factors affect them to decision-making. Datas after analysis will chiefly reply hypotheses
In Part III, the inquiry ask chiefly to reply hypothesis # 1, different type of information defined as the demands of user. The concluding inquiry asks respondents if the Lazy User Model comports with their thought job resolution.
All informations gather and after analysis will reply hypothesis # 3.
3.3 The Survey Questionnaire
Chiefly read Online News Mainly read traditional Newspaper Both
( choose one merely )
Part I. Factors of user choose solutions
1. The image below shows how solutions are defined and limited. Does the relation shown below correspond to your image of how solutions to a problem/need are limited?
2a. Assume that you have a job that needs to be solved to 100 % satisfaction, by utilizing a merchandise or service. Which three factors are most of import to you when taking a solution to work out your job ( Select Three Main Factors ) ? Choose merely three option for this inquiry.
Convenience ( cell phone, public computing machine, location, etc, for illustration )
2b. If you answered “ other ” or “ Convenience ” ( or both ) , what is this factor/are these factors?
3. What degree do the three chief factors affect your pick of solution?
No Affect/no reply
4. You have chosen three chief factors. Are at that place any extra factors that affect you choose solution beside of you chose factor? You may take 1 or more factors, but merely choose those factors that affect your pick.
Convenience ( cell phone, public computing machine, location, etc, for illustration )
4b. If you answered “ other ” or “ Convenience ” ( or both ) , what is this factor/are these factors?
Extra. You have now chosen three chief factors. Are there extra factors that affect your pick of solution? ( Choose ONLY the factors that affect your pick in add-on to the three chief factors ) . Mention to name for inquiry # 4 and take other factors that influence your pick. You may take 1 or more factors, but merely choose those factors that affect your pick.
Convenience ( cell phone, public computing machine, location, etc, for illustration )
Part II. Assume inquiry picks and solutions
Assume that you need to entree a newspaper, print version or on-line version. How would you work out the job and what affects you in every different state of affairs in your head?
Assume that you need to read a intelligence in either the printed newspaper or an on-line newspaper of the same newspaper. And, you are in the below state of affairs. You can purchase it after a walk 1/2km to the nearest newsstand, or measure into the Starbucks behind you and pay to utilize their wireless cyberspace with your laptop or nomadic device.
What is your pick in each state of affairs and what factors affect your pick?
Refer to factors in Question 2 and name them out here.
Convenience ( cell phone, public computing machine, location, etc, for illustration )
Factors Affecting Choices
Use online at Starbucks
Buy printed newspaper at newsstand
Walk 4m to Starbucks and utilize on-line radio service for your laptop
Walk A? kilometer to the nearest newsstand bargain printed newspaper
Need to entree newspaper characteristics
Part III. Use
7. Which of the undermentioned on-line intelligence services/features have you heard of and which 1s have you used?
Current events/happenings around town
Local amusement and night life
International intelligence and events
News web logs
8. Make you believe you will utilize any of the undermentioned on-line intelligence services/features in the coming twelvemonth?
Current events/happenings around town
Local amusement and night life
International intelligence and events
News web logs
9. Would you utilize the undermentioned on-line intelligence services/features when you have a need/problem that needs to be solved?
Current events/happenings around town
Local amusement and night life
International intelligence and events
News web logs
10. Would you pay for on-line intelligence services as listed in inquiry 9?
Depends on Situation.
11. This is the Lazy User Model Construct. Make you hold?
Other ground ( please list )