1. Why do economic experts utilize existent GDP instead than nominal GDP to estimate economic wellbeing? Real GDP is the production of goods and services valued at changeless monetary values. Nominal GDP is the production of goods and services valued at current monetary values. Real GDP instead than nominal GDP to estimate economic wellbeing because existent GDP is non affected by alterations in monetary values. so it reflects merely alterations in the sums being produced. If nominal GDP rises. you do non cognize if that is because of increased production or higher monetary values.
2. Economists and policymakers monitor both the GDP deflator and the consumer monetary value index to estimate how rapidly monetary values are lifting. However. these two statistics may non ever tell the same narrative. Discuss two of import differences that can do them to diverge. The first difference:
the GDP deflator reflects the monetary values of all goods and services produced domestically the consumer monetary value index reflects the monetary values of all goods and services bought by consumers. For illustration: suppose that the monetary value of an aeroplane produced by Boeing and sold to the Air Force rises. Even though the plane is portion of GDP. it is non portion of the basket of goods and services bought by a typical consumer. Therefore. the monetary value addition shows up in the GDP deflator but non in the consumer monetary value index The 2nd difference:
( refer how assorted monetary values are weighted to give a individual figure for the overall degree of monetary values ) The consumer monetary value index compares the monetary value of a fixed basket of goods and services to the monetary value of the basket in the base twelvemonth the GDP deflator compares the monetary value of presently produced goods and services to the monetary value of the same goods and services in the base twelvemonth ( This difference is non of import when all monetary values are altering proportionally. But if the monetary values of different goods and services are altering by changing sums. the manner we weight the assorted monetary values affairs for the overall rising prices rate. ) 3. Describe the three jobs that make the consumer monetary value index an imperfect step of the cost of life. permutation prejudice
Over clip. some monetary values rise faster than others
This is consumer permutation toward goods that have become comparatively less expensive. But CPI is computed presuming fixed basket of goods so it ignores the possiblity of consumer permutation. It overstates the cost of life For illustration: In 2000. Mangifera indicas are cheaper than oranges. consumer purchase more Mangifera indica. The Department of Statistics include more Mangifera indicas than oranges in the basket. In 2002. oranges are cheaper than Mangifera indicas so consumer choose to purchase more oranges. Howeverthe CPI is computed by fixed basket in 2000 so the alteration in measures of oranges and Mangifera indicas aren’t reflected. Introduction of new goods:
When new goods become available. assortment additions. leting consumers to happen merchandises that more closely run into their demands.
This has the consequence of doing each dollar more valuable.
For illustration: 4 old ages ago. with $ 399 you can purchase an Iphone 3G ( 8GB ) . Now. with $ 399. you can purchase an Iphone 4GS ( 16 GB )
When there is debut of new goods. consumer will hold more picks = & gt ; makes each dollar more valuable. In other manner. with same given of dollars. people are better off = & gt ; cost of life deacreases. However. this is non reflected in CPI.
For illustration: the appear of Iphone 4S is non included in the basket. a. Unmeasured quality alteration:
More spirits to take
If the quality of a good rises from one twelvemonth to the following. the value of a dollar rises. even if the monetary value of the good stays the same. If the quality of a good falls from one twelvemonth to the following. the value of a dollar falls. even if the monetary value of the good stays the same. The Department of Statistics attempts to set the monetary value for changeless quality. but such differences are difficult to mensurate. For illustration. when a auto theoretical account has more HP or gets better gas milage from one twelvemonth to the next—the Bureau adjusts the monetary value of the good to account for the quality alteration. It is. in kernel. seeking to calculate the monetary value of a basket of goods of changeless quality. Despite these attempts. alterations in quality remain a job because quality is so difficult to mensurate
3. Why is frictional unemployment inevitable? How might the authorities cut down the sum of frictional unemployment? Answer:
Frictional unemployment is inevitable because the economic system is ever altering. Some houses are shriveling while others are spread outing. Some parts are sing faster growing than other parts. Passages of workers between houses and between parts are accompanied by impermanent unemployment.
The authorities could assist to cut down the sum of frictional unemployment through public policies that provide information about occupation vacancies in order to fit workers and occupations more rapidly. and through public preparation plans that help ease the passage of workers from worsening to spread outing industries and assist disadvantaged groups escape poorness.
4. What claims do advocators of brotherhoods make to reason that brotherhoods are good for the economic system? Answer:
Advocates of brotherhoods claim that brotherhoods are good for the economic system because they are an counterpoison to the market power of the houses that hire workers and they are of import for assisting houses respond expeditiously to workers’ concerns.
5. Explain four ways in which a house might increase its net incomes by raising the rewards it pays. Answer:
Four grounds why a firm’s net incomes might increase when it raises rewards are:
( 1 ) Better paid workers are healthier and more productive ;
( 2 ) Worker turnover is reduced ;
( 3 ) The house can pull higher quality workers ; and
( 4 ) Worker attempt is increased.
6. Using a diagram of the labour market. demo the consequence of an addition in the minimal pay on the pay paid to workers. the figure of workers supplied. the figure of workers demanded. and the sum of unemployment. Answer:
Figure 2 shows a diagram of the labour market with a adhering minimal pay. At the initial minimal pay ( M1 ) . the measure of labour supplied L1S is greater than the measure of labour demanded L1D. and unemployment is equal to L1S ? L1D. An addition in the minimal pay to m2 leads to an addition in the measure of labour supplied to L2S and a lessening in the measure of labour demanded to L2D. As a consequence. unemployment additions as the minimal pay rises.
7. Why don’t Bankss hold 100 per centum militias? How is the sum of militias Bankss hold related to the sum of money the banking system creates? Answer: ( Page: 650-651-653-653 )
Banks do non keep 100 % militias because it is more profitable to utilize the militias to do loans. which earn involvement. alternatively of go forthing the money as militias. which earn no involvement.
The sum of militias Bankss hold is related to the sum of money the banking system creates through the money multiplier. The smaller the fraction of militias Bankss hold. the larger the money multiplier. because each dollar of militias is used to make more money.
8. Explain the difference between nominal and existent variables. and give two illustrations of each. Harmonizing to the rule of pecuniary neutrality. which variables are affected by alterations in the measure of money? Answer:
Nominal variables are those measured in pecuniary units. while existent variables are those measured in physical units. Examples of nominal variables include the monetary values of goods. rewards. and nominal GDP.
Examples of existent variables include comparative monetary values ( the monetary value of one good in footings of another ) . existent rewards. and existent GDP.
Harmonizing to the rule of pecuniary neutrality. merely nominal variables are affected by alterations in the measure of money.
9. In what sense is rising prices like a revenue enhancement? How does believing approximately rising prices as a revenue enhancement aid explicate hyperinflation? Answer:
Inflation is like a revenue enhancement because everyone who holds money loses buying power.
In a hyperinflation. the authorities increases the money supply quickly. which leads to a high rate of rising prices.
Therefore the authorities uses the rising prices revenue enhancement. alternatively of revenue enhancements. to finance its disbursement.
10. Harmonizing to the Fischer consequence. how does an addition in the rising prices rate affect the existent involvement rate and the nominal involvement rate? Answer:
Harmonizing to the Fisher consequence. an addition in the rising prices rate raises the nominal involvement rate by the same sum that the rising prices rate additions. with no consequence on the existent involvement rate.
11. Suppose that this year’s money supply is $ 500 billion. nominal GDP is $ 10 trillion. and existent GDP is $ 5 trillion.
a. What is the monetary value degree? What is the speed of money?
B. Suppose that speed is changeless and the economy’s end product of goods and services rises by 5 per centum each twelvemonth. What will go on to nominal GDP and the monetary value degree next twelvemonth if the Fed keeps the money supply changeless?
c. What money supply should the Fed set following twelvemonth if it wants to maintain the monetary value degree stable?
d. What money supply should the Fed set following twelvemonth if it wants rising prices of 10 per centum? Answer:
In this job. all sums are shown in one million millions.
a. Nominal GDP = P x Y = $ 10. 000 and Y = existent GDP = $ 5. 000. so P = ( P x Y ) /Y = $ 10. 000/ $ 5. 000 = 2.
Because M x V = P x Y. so V = ( P x Y ) /M = $ 10. 000/ $ 500 = 20.
B. If M and V are unchanged and Y rises by 5 % . so because M x V = P x Y. P must fall by 5 % . As a consequence. nominal GDP is unchanged.
c. To maintain the monetary value degree stable. the Fed must increase the money supply by 5 % . fiting the addition in existent GDP. Then. because speed is unchanged. the monetary value degree will be stable.
d. If the Fed wants rising prices to be 10 % . it will necessitate to increase the money supply 15 % . Thus M x V will lift 15 % . doing P x Y to lift 15 % . with a 10 % addition in monetary values and a 5 % rise in existent GDP.
11. List and explicate the three grounds why the aggregative demand curve is downward inclining. Answer: ( See PAGES: 746-749 ) -see FIGURE-3
The aggregate-demand curve is downward inclining because:
( 1 ) a lessening in the monetary value degree makes consumers experience wealthier. which in bend encourages them to pass more. so there is a larger measure of goods and services demanded ;
( 2 ) a lower monetary value degree reduces the involvement rate. promoting greater disbursement on investing. so there is a larger measure of goods and services demanded ;
( 3 ) a autumn in the U. S. monetary value degree causes U. S. involvement rates to fall. so the existent exchange rate depreciates. exciting U. S. net exports. so there is a larger measure of goods and services demanded.
12. Explain why the long-term aggregate-supply curve is perpendicular.
Answer: ( See PAGES: 752-753 ) -see FIGURE-4
The long-term sum supply curve is perpendicular
because in the long tally. an economy’s supply of goods and services ( its existent GDP ) depends on its supplies of capital. labour. and natural resources and on the available production engineering used to turn these resources into goods and services.
The monetary value degree does non impact these long-term determiners of existent GDP. 13. List and explicate the three theories for why the short-term aggregate-supply curve is upward inclining.
Answer: ( See PAGES: 755-760 ) -see FIGURE-6
Three theories explain why the short-term aggregate-supply curve is upward sloping: ( 1 ) the sticky-wage theory. in which a lower monetary value degree makes employment and production less profitable because rewards do non set instantly to the monetary value degree. so houses cut down the measure of goods and services supplied ; ( 2 ) the sticky-price theory. in which an unexpected autumn in the monetary value degree leaves some houses with higher-than-desired monetary values because non all monetary values adjust immediately to altering conditions. which depresses gross revenues and induces houses to cut down the measure of goods and services they produce ( 3 ) the misperceptions theory. in which a lower monetary value degree causes misperceptions about comparative monetary values. and these misperceptions induce providers to react to the lower monetary value degree by diminishing the measure of goods and services supplied.
14. Suppose that the modesty demand for look intoing sedimentations is 10 per centum and that Bankss do non keep any extra militias.
a. If the Fed sells $ 1 million of authorities bonds. what is the consequence on the economy’s militias and money supply?
B. Now suppose the Fed lowers the modesty demand to 5 per centum. but Bankss choose to keep another 5 per centum of sedimentations as extra militias. Why might Bankss make so? What is the overall alteration in the money multiplier and the money supply as a consequence of these actions?
a. With a needed modesty ratio of 10 % and no extra militias. the money multiplier is 1/ . 10 = 10. If the Fed sells $ 1 million of bonds. militias will worsen by $ 1 million and the money supply will contract by 10 ten $ 1 million = $ 10 million.
B. Banks might wish to keep extra militias if they need to keep the militias for their daily operations. such as paying other Bankss for customers’ minutess. doing alteration. cashing payroll checks. and so on.
If Bankss increase extra militias such that there is no overall alteration in the entire modesty ratio. so the money multiplier does non alter and there is no consequence on the money supply.