What Is An Information System Information Technology Essay

Information system is a set of interconnected constituents that work together to roll up, procedure, shop, and circulate information to back up determination devising, coordination, control, analysis, and visual image in an organisation. A computing machine system is the physical equipment used for input, processing, and end product activities in an information system. Computer plans provide the computing machine with necessary instructions on how to treat the information into information. Datas are natural facts ; these natural facts, in their current signifier, are non in a utile format. Information is informations that have been processed into a utile, meaningful signifier.


Noteworthy alterations happening over clip include a turning mutuality between the organisation and its information systems and a motion from chiefly proficient alterations to include both managerial and institutional alterations. There is a turning mutuality between the organisation and its information systems. Often, a alteration in the concern ‘s scheme, regulations, or procedures requires alterations in the information systems package, hardware, databases, and telecommunications. An organisation ‘s present and future achievements depend in many respects on what its systems will allow it to make now and subsequently. Besides, system undertakings are increasing in range and range. Whereas early information systems addressed chiefly proficient or operational issues, modern-day information systems are built-in to the direction and strategic ends of the house. Today information systems affect a much larger portion of the organisation itself, such as organisational merchandises, aims, and construction. More and more concern activities at all degrees involve the usage of information systems.

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Organization: Information systems are portion of organisations, and in some instances ( such as recognition card companies and fiscal information services ) , they are the organisation. Information systems will hold the SOPs and the civilization of an organisation imbedded within them.

Management: Information systems supply tools and information needed by directors to apportion, co-ordinate and supervise their work, make determinations, create new merchandises, and services and do long-range strategic determinations.

Technology: Management utilizations engineering ( hardware, package, storage, and telecommunications ) to transport out their maps. It is one of the many tools directors use to get by with alteration.

Major types of systems in administration:

Transaction treating systems, office systems, cognition work systems, decision-support systems, direction information systems, and executive support systems are the major types of systems in organisations.

Transaction treating systems Function at the operational degree of the organisation. Examples of dealing treating systems include order trailing, order processing, machine control, works programming, compensation, and securities trading.

Knowledge work systems help make and incorporate new cognition within the organisation. Examples of cognition work systems include technology workstations, managerial workstations, and artworks workstations. Office systems help increase informations worker productiveness and include word processing papers imagination, and electronic calendars.

Management information systems provide directors with studies based chiefly on informations pulled from dealing treating systems, have an internal orientation, and have limited flexibleness. Examples of direction information systems include gross revenues direction, stock list control, and capital investing analysis. Decision-support systems map at the direction degree and supply analytical theoretical accounts and informations analysis tools to supply support for semi-structured and unstructured decision-making activities. Examples of decision-support systems include gross revenues part analysis, cost analysis, and contract cost analysis.

Executive support systems map at the strategic degree, support unstructured determination devising, and usage advanced artworks and communications. Examples of executive support systems include gross revenues tendency prediction, budget prediction, and forces planning.

The systems form a degree of systems, with all types either data format or treating the information from a lower degree. For case, the office systems provide studies or presentations on the information or information in dealing processing systems. Decision-support and executive support systems frequently use office systems in showing information extracted from dealing treating systems and direction information system. Management information systems depend on informations from dealing treating systems. Some systems, including cognition work systems, decision-support systems, and executive support systems may utilize external information, such as stock market information and design information from providers


DSS provide sophisticated analytical theoretical accounts and informations analysis tools to back up semi structured and unstructured decision-making activities. DSS usage informations from TPS, MIS, and external beginnings, supply more analytical power than other systems, combine information, and are synergistic. ESS support senior directors with unstructured strategic-level determination devising. They may be less analytical than DSS with less usage of theoretical accounts such as additive scheduling or prediction. However, they frequently rely on external informations and rely to a great extent on artworks.


Transaction processing system chiefly includes five systems they are as follows

Sales/marketing systems provide gross revenues direction, market research, publicity, pricing, and new merchandise maps. Examples include gross revenues order information systems, market research systems, and gross revenues committee systems.

Manufacturing/production systems provide programming, buying, shipping/receiving, technology, and operations maps. Examples of fabricating systems include machine control systems, purchase order systems, and quality control systems.

Finance/accounting systems provide budgeting, general leger, charge, and cost accounting maps. Examples of finance/accounting systems include general leger, histories receivable/payable, and financess direction systems.

Human resource systems provide forces records, benefits, compensation, labour dealingss, preparation, and paysheet maps. Examples include employee records, benefit systems, and career way systems.

Other types include admittances, class records, class records, and alumnas for a university. Examples of dealing treating systems for a university include a enrollment system, pupil transcript system, and an alumni helper system


Information systems are driving both day-to-day operations and organisational scheme. Powerful computing machines, package, and webs, including the Internet, have helped organisations go more flexible, eliminate beds of direction, separate work from location, and restructure work flows, giving new powers to both line workers and direction. The flattening of organisations is likely one alteration that pupils are likely to mention, peculiarly with the concern over retrenchment. The parallel addition in information and in the determination power of line workers ( authorization ) besides increased the workers ‘ matching work satisfaction as direction span of control is broadened. The empowering of the line worker means directors can pass more clip believing more strategically.


Strategic concern challenge

Globalization challenge

Information architecture and substructure challenge

Information systems investing challenge

Responsibility and control challenge.

The strategic concern challenge encourages us to recognize that we must be able to utilize information engineering to plan organisations so that they are competitory, effectual and digitally-enabled. The globalisation challenge confronting us is that we must determine how houses can understand the systems demands of a planetary economic environment. The information architecture and substructure challenge is that we must be able to assist the organisation develop an information architecture that is able to back up the company ends when both the concern conditions and the engineerings are altering so quickly. The information systems investing challenge is for us to cognize how the organisation can find the concern value of systems. Finally, the duty and control challenge is for us to understand how organisations can guarantee that their information systems are used in an ethically and socially responsible manner.


End-user development refers to the development of information systems by terminal users with minimum or no aid from professional systems analysts or coders. This is accomplished through sophisticated “ user-friendly ” package tools and gives terminal users direct control over their ain computer science.

Advantages include improved demands finding, recognizing big productiveness additions when developing certain types of applications, enabling terminal users to take a more active function in the systems development procedure, many can be used for prototyping, and some have new maps such as artworks, mold, and ad hoc information retrieval.

Disadvantages include non being suited for big transaction-oriented applications or applications with complex updating demands, criterions for proving and choice confidence may non be applied, and proliferation of uncontrolled informations and private information systems.

End-user development is suited to work outing some of the backlog job because the terminal users can develop their needed applications themselves. It is suited to developing low-transaction systems. End-user development is valuable for making systems that entree informations for such intents as analysis ( including the usage of artworks in that analysis ) and describing. It can besides be used for developing simple data-entry applications.

Policies and processs to pull off end-user development include the followers:

The organisation must set up sufficient support installations for end-user computer science: information centres or distributed end-user computer science centres.

Training and support should be targeted to the specific demands of those being trained.

End-user application development should non be allowed to be undertaken indiscriminately but should be incorporated into the organisation ‘s strategic program.

Management should develop controls over end-user computer science in the undermentioned countries:

Cost justification of end-user information system undertaking.

Hardware and package criterions for user-developed applications.

Company-wide criterions for personal computers, word processing package, database direction systems, artworks package, and question and coverage tools.

Quality confidence reviews that stipulate whether the end-user systems must be reviewed by information systems and internal audit specializers.

Control for end-user developed applications covering testing, certification, truth, and completeness of input and update, backup, recovery and supervising.

Critical applications that supply informations to other of import systems should be flagged and subjected to more strict criterions.


The company which is taken for this survey is the Virgin trains.The virgin trains belongs to the virgin groups.this private railroad has has done a support if its information system.it has to the full transformed information system to supply better service to its clients and besides to transport out its concern processes efficaciously.


The general aim of the virgin trains is to hold an advanced information direction system.The purpose of this system is to hold a strong IT infrastructure.virgin aims to keep to ease both the employees and besides the clients in all its concern activities by holding an a good information direction system backed up by advanced engineering.


The support of the engineering at Virgin trains has been done by Halcrow. It is an organisation which provides the organisations with solution to keep their information.at Halcrow the rich person combined cutting border information engineering accomplishments along with front line Railway direction accomplishments to supply a really effectual and efficient direction information system.


The chief scheme which virgin trains is following now is to revamp its full information system procedure, feasibleness surveies of the information system which is implemented is carried out, besides the hazard involved in the system has besides been analysed.

It is now concentrating to efficaciously keep its selling information.in order to make that countries like warehousing commercial informations, informations analysis, warehousing and utilizing click-stream informations are given more importance.

As a portion of its IT transmutation Virgin trains has besides transformed some of its systems such as the Train planning and scheduling informations, on-train monitoring and describing systems informations.



Virgin has a tonss of installations which help the clients with the engagement of ticket.there are many installations like the nomadic ticketing platforms, bit and trap units to Blutooth based equipment for onboard payments.These are the devices used to keep the services provided to the client through advanced MIS tools provided by Halcrow.


Virgin has a new system which is used to keep the employees in the organization.The system is called the crew planning system.with the aid of this system it is possible to assign the employees their displacements based on their trains.It helps in consistently apportioning the employees harmonizing to their shifts.It helps a great trade when there are deficits of staff due to a staff member traveling on leave, retirement of staff members etc.It is really much utile when to pull off the employees peculiarly during the times of disruption.the crew planning system was provide by Atos beginning to the virgin trains.


The MIS used for the direction to transport out its activities is designed by Halcrow.Virgin uses the MIS solution that was framed by Halcrow to keep activities like recruiting, Decesion devising, fiscal direction etc.This MIS besides helps to better describing around countries such as on-train shopping forms.

The MIS provided by the Halcrow besides interfaces with the CRM system which is written in.NET so this helps the Virgin trains to hold a good CRM with its clients.


Virgin is presently finalising test ; s for a axial rotation out of handheld devices.Tese devices will be given to the driversv of the trains and tese devices vare equipped with Vodafone supplied PDA’s.This device helps the drivers by replacing the paper based stuffs and would assist in effectual handling of the information.


HP is the chief provider of all the hardware devices used at virgin for MIS.Citrix supplies thin-client Technology for applications such as rail operation systems.


The chief supplier of package to the MIS at virgin is Microsoft and Capgemini has besides been one of the cardinal provider of packages for the system.

SWOT Analysis:


The virgin trains has a batch of potency for bettering its processes.As mentioned before it is making a revamp of all its MIS processes this puts the Virgin trains in a advanced phase and besides in a strong place to confront its competetors.


The maintanace of the system is really expensive and the company aims to acquire a full return on all the investings made by it on IT.Any failure of any system which is presently being used will go a great failing to the organization.since most of the procedures are being experimented still.


As mentioned before the revamping of the IT processes at the virgin is a greatr chance for the organisation to rectify the defects of the old system and to hold an effectual new system.


Since most of the informations used by virgin trains is dependent on electronic informations any minor mistake in the system would do a menace to the full system of virgin trains.


In this undertaking we have seen briefly about MIS and its map in an organisation.The Virgin Trains is taking MIS to a whole new degree by puting steadfastly in its IT and besides experimenting with its new systems which are goin to be implemented.we saw how the usage of MIS facilitates the organisation on all angles of the business.MIS helps non merely the organisation but besides its stakeholders and it helps the organisation to accomplish its aim in a really short period.


hypertext transfer protocol: //www.computerweekly.com/Articles/2010/06/02/241427/CIO-interview-Virgin-Trains39-IT-remains-on-the.htm

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.halcrow.com/Areas-of-expertise/Rail/Data-management-and-management-information-systems/