Outline and Evaluate one or more accounts of why people obey It has been found by Milgram that people obey for four chief grounds these are ; legitimate authorization. the impulse of conformity. the agentic displacement and passiveness.
The first ground that Milgram found that people obey is because people feel like they have to obey person if they have a high societal position or a extremely well-thought-of occupation. this is called legitimate authorization. Bickman ( 1974 ) supported this theory by making an experiment on the streets of New York. Bickman had three work forces dress up as a police officer. a guard and a regular passer-by in a shirt and tie. he so had the three work forces inquire other passerby’s to either pay a parking mulct or pick something of the floor. it was found that the police officer was by and large obeyed more as he was of a extremely respected profession and had legitimate authorization. In Milgram’s survey. the participants all obeyed the research worker because he was dressed in a lab coat with a clipboard to demo his authorization. but the scene of the experiment besides gave the research worker authorization as the scene was inside Yale University. Another support experiment was done by Hofling.
Hofling found that obeisance to authorization is still really high as his survey of the 22 nurses ; all but one nurse obeyed the unknown physician and went to administrate duplicate the allowed dosage of an unknown drug. Rank and Jacobson questioned the cogency of Hofling’s survey for three chief grounds ; the first ground is that the drug the nurses were asked to administrate was fictional. and it was improbable the nurses had heard of it. The 2nd ground is that it would besides hold been really improbable that the nurses would hold non heard of the ‘unknown doctor’ as it was really improbable that the nurses wouldn’t know all the physicians in the infirmary. The 3rd ground was that the ‘unknown doctor’ rang when the nurses were all entirely on the ward. which would ne’er hold happened as they would ne’er hold been wholly entirely without anyone to inquire or oppugn about administrating the drug. Rank and Jacobson re-did Hofling’s experiment this clip without missing cogency and the figure of obedient nurses dropped from 21/22 to 1/18 nurses.
The 2nd ground people obey is called the impulse of conformity. Otherwise known as the ‘foot in the door’ technique. it is normally used by salesmen as they are seeking to sell points. they start up with the smaller points and work their manner up to the bigger. more dearly-won points. Smith and Mackie ( 2003 ) found that similar procedures take portion in real-life offenses where felons normally work their manner up from smaller offenses to bigger. life endangering offenses. Milgram found that the impulse of conformity was found in his experiment. as the switches were traveling up in merely 15v each clip the participant started little and worked their manner up to the bigger dazes and so without it really hitting place. they’ve really killed person but they weren’t able to halt. Like the well-known Pringles stating ‘once you pop you can’t stop’ .
The 3rd ground for why people obey is when a individual displacement from the independent province to the agentic province ; this is called the agentic displacement. Milgrams participants believed they were ‘just following orders’ and did non see themselves responsible ; his participants even sighed with alleviation when the experimenter said “I am responsible for what happens here. ” Evidence from war felons. has shown that Eichmann. who was trialled and found guilty for the Nazi war violent deaths as he was the adult male who organized which camps the Judaic people would stop up at. said “it wasn’t my mistake. I was merely following orders” this shows that Eichmann was really agentic as he believed that he did no incorrect he was merely following his orders.
Other surveies from Hofling et Al ( 1966 ) has shown that agentic people follow a hierarchy. they are responsible for the individual above them. but non the people below them. this is shown in the Eichmann survey as he was responsible to the people who were in charge of his actions but non the people who his actions harmed. In Milgram’s study the fact that his participants showed marks of emphasis and anxiousness showed that they were in fact independent as they felt guilty for the things they were making as they knew it was them forcing the buttons and non the people above them.
The 4th and concluding ground is that people have passiveness. this means they will obey if agencies they don’t have to do a scene. this shows that they would instead hold to something that they know might hold awful effects alternatively of get downing statements between groups of people. Cardwell ( 2001 ) found that the four grounds for obeying do non really cover the motivational factors that are connected to motive. Cardwell found that being obedient could hold its ain wages. this is shown by the German Nazi’s who gained jewelry from the Judaic people they killed every bit good as things like gilded fillings or women’s hair to sell on for money. this shows that the Nazi’s didn’t merely obey because they were agentic. but because they had some
personal addition. Besides another defect in the grounds for obeying is that many people that commit offenses have used the fact that the victim should be the one blamed as they ‘deserved it’ or they made them make it. This is so the individual perpetrating the offense has some self justification. The last defect is that the theory doesn’t consider the function of inter-group ill will. this means that people in different societal groups that do non or didn’t get along.
For illustration. the Nazi Germans didn’t like the Jewish community as they believed they were stealing all of Germany’s wealth. this created many jobs which ended in 1000000s of Judaic people being executed so that Germany’s wealth could remain in Germany. This was a major defect in the Milgram survey as the people who participated in the survey were all of the same race. gender and ages. intending they wouldn’t have any inter group ill will with people from their ain background.