Recent research indicates that although there is an addition in the figure of e-commerce web sites, many online shoppers are non satisfied with the web sites they use. So it is important for any e-tailer to take into history consumers ‘ demands and seek to accomplish positive emotions in order to increase their figure of consumers.
Aims. This survey aims to widen a theoretical account proposed by Hausman and Siekpe ( 2009 ) to prove the impact of website interface elements on consumer purposes. It besides aims to prove the theoretical account on a sample of Arab ethnic. Furthermore, the survey efforts to compare the consequences with the Hausman and Siekpe findings.
Methods. Hausman and Siekpe ‘s ( 2009 ) theoretical account, hypotheses, and questionnaire were adapted and the drawn-out dimension was added. The same questionnaire was used on three different web sites to prove the research hypotheses, merely one of which supported the Arabic linguistic communication. The questionnaire was foremost piloted with 4 users and so distributed online to 3 different samples ( one for each web site ) . A sum of 308 complete responses were received and analyzed.
Consequences. The consequences of all three sites show a good tantrum between the informations collected and the research theoretical account except with annoyance and flow variables. Therefore all of the research hypotheses were supported except one ( annoyance has a negative consequence on perceived flow ) . The overall consequences are in line with Hausman and Siekpe ‘s ( 2009 ) findings. It besides appears that buying experience has an influential consequence on consumers ‘ positions towards a site.
Decisions. It can be concluded that website design elements have a clear impact on consumers ‘ purchase and revisit purposes. In add-on, it seems that buying experience besides influences the consumers ‘ determinations and positions. Multilingual options play a important function in heightening e-shoppers ‘ positive emotions, particularly for a first-time consumer.
As a effect of the Internet revolution in recent old ages, online shops have increased quickly in figure and companies have started to set up their online shops to maintain up with the competition. However, they have late realized that set uping a web site does n’t intend an addition in gross. This became clear in 1999-2000 when the dot com bubble explosion, demoing for the first clip to the universe that e-commerce web sites must take into account consumer demands ( 2000 ; Johanson, 2003 ; Rosen and Purinton, 2004 ) . Rubin ( 2002 ) points out every bit stated in Johanson ( 2003 ) that a study of 2000 online shoppers found that half of them were really defeated with the web site they used and that approximately a tierce of the clip users failed to finish the purchase procedure on an e-commerce site ( Tucker, 2008 ) . After this crisis companies changed their focal point from merely making a web site to happen how to accomplish the best usage of it in order to fulfill online costumiers and increase their purchase purposes ( Richard, 2005 ) . Since so several surveies have been conducted but the focal points for these surveies were widely different. This is due to the nature of the e-commerce system which is related to different countries: information systems, selling, and human computing machine interface ( HCI ) ; e-commerce has both computing machine and human factors ( Hausman and Siekpe, 2009 ) . As the design and ambiance of the traditional shop drama a important function on act uponing consumer behaviour and purchase purpose, the same thing applies with on-line retail merchants. Milliman and Fugate ( 1993 ) described the e-store atmosphere as the website interface that Richard ( 2005 ) mentioned. Furthermore, there is non much information about how website design affects consumers ‘ purchase purposes ( Song and Zahedi, 2005 ) .
Because of the above grounds it is important to concentrate on website design and its impact on on-line consumers and analyze it in more deepness. An interesting paper written by Hausman and Siekpe ( 2009 ) discusses this issue by concentrating on the impact of web design factors on purchase and return purposes. In their survey they divided web sites ‘ interface elements into two classs: human elements and computing machine elements. Then they proposed and tested a theoretical account by using three different theories: Technology and Acceptance Model ( TAM ) , Uses and Gratifications ( G & A ; U ) , and flow theory. By utilizing these theories they covered all the facets related to the online shopping ( IS and psychological facets ) . Based on their theoretical account Hausman and Siekpe ( 2009 ) gave recommendations on how to utilize website design to bring forth a positive result. Therefore, I found it utile to review their findings but with a sample of Arab ethnic in order to research the influence of the website interface as an impacting factor on their online buying. Furthermore, I intend to widen their theoretical account by adding easiness of usage which has been excluded from their theoretical account.
This survey aims to widen the theoretical account proposed by Hausman and Siekpe ( 2009 ) to prove the impact of website interface elements on consumer purposes. It besides aims to prove the theoretical account on a sample of Arab ethnic. Furthermore, the survey efforts to compare the consequences with the Hausman and Siekpe findings.
To transport out a literature reappraisal on the deductions of website design on online shopping.
To widen the Hausman and Siekpe theoretical account to include the easiness of usage.
To plan and prove a questionnaire to examine the impact of website design on consumer buying and revisiting purposes.
To plan and implement a study of on-line consumers of Arab ethnicity.
To analyze the consequence obtained and find to what extent the design factors and the mediating factors influence consumers.
To look into the impact of consumers ‘ buying experience on their positions and sentiments about e-commerce web sites.
To compare the consequence obtained with those of the Hausman and Siekpe research and to do recommendations sing retail merchant website design.
The first chapter introduces the context of this research and reports its purposes and aims. The undermentioned chapter ( chapter 2 ) starts by presenting several definitions for website interface and gives an overview of website design characteristics categorizations. This is followed by presenting the Technology Acceptance Model ( TAM ) and Uses and Gratifications ( U & A ; G ) constructs including the attitude towards site, flow theory, and shopping purposes. The 3rd chapter gives a general overview about Hausman and Siekpe ‘s ( 2009 ) methodological analysis followed by a description of the research methodological analysis and the questionnaire design. Chapter 4 includes a description of the 3 different samples in add-on to study analysis and hypothesis testing. In chapter 5 the analysis consequences from the old chapter is discussed and compared with the findings of Hausman and Siekpe ‘s ( 2009 ) research. The concluding chapter ( chapter 6 ) presents the research decision, which summarises the research findings in add-on to the restrictions of the research every bit good as supplying recommendations for e-commerce interior decorators and e-tailers.
This chapter foremost introduces several definitions for website interface and statics. Then it gives an overview of website design characteristics and categorizations. This is followed by presenting the Technology Acceptance Model ( TAM ) and Uses and Gratifications ( U & A ; G ) constructs including the attitude towards site, flow theory, and shopping purposes.
In a traditional shop the client interface is normally called statics and is defined as “ the witting designing of infinite to make certain purchaser effects, specifically, the designing of purchasing environments to bring forth specific emotional effects in the purchaser that enhance purchase chance ” ( Kotler, 1973:50 ) . Atmospheric cues might be more effectual than other selling inputs in the buying ( Baker et al. , 1994 ) and impact purchase purposes more than the merchandise itself ( Kotler, 1973 ) Kotler, 1973 P. Kotler, Atmosphere as a selling tool, J. Retail. 49 ( 1973 ) , pp. 48-64 [ Winter ] .. Baker et Al. ( 1994 ) proposed classification that grouped the elements of traditional brick-and-mortar shops or shop environment into three classs: ( 1 ) societal factors such as the people in the shop, ( 2 ) design factors which are ocular cues, and ( 3 ) ambient factors which are non-visual cues. In add-on, several surveies highlighted the consequence of one or more constituents of traditional retail shop atmosphere such as music, lighting, and the environment ( Hui and Dube, 1997 ; Sharma and Stafford, 2000 ; Yalch and Spangenberg, 2000 ) . In an online context, Eroglu et al. , ( 2001 ) stress that on-line retail merchants besides provide an ambiance via their web site ; nevertheless, their categorization does non wholly use to them and he defines these statics as “ all cues that are seeable and hearable to the online shoppers ” ( p.179 ) . For Dailey ( 2004 ) , a web statics cue is “ aˆ¦ any Web interface constituent within an person ‘s perceptual field that stimulates one ‘s senses ” ( p.769 ) and harmonizing to Hausman and Siekpe ( 2009 ) they are besides included in the computing machine interface.
Research and Website Design Features Classification
Several surveies have been done to construct a theoretical theoretical account for web design characteristics. Eroglu et Al. ( 2001 ; 2003 ) classified design features into two general classs: a high task-relevant environment and a low task-relevant environment. The high task-relevant is “ all the site forms ( verbal or pictural ) that appear on the screen which facilitate and enable the consumer ‘s shopping end attainment ” ( Eroglu et al. , 2001:179 ) . They besides added that high task-relevant environments subsume verbal cues that are related to the shopping end, images of the ware, handiness of sampling, and pilotage AIDSs. Whereas the low task-relevant “ represents site information that is comparatively inconsequential to completion of the shopping undertaking ” ( Eroglu et al. , 2001:180 ) . In other words, low task-relevant cues include verbal content which is unrelated to the shopping end and other cues like coloring material, background sounds and music, image maps, and amusement constituents. Griffith ( 2005 ) classified the online layout into two classs: tree and tunnel web site constructions. Despite the fact that these surveies show that on-line statics in general can act upon client behaviour towards buying, they did n’t explicate which online factors have an impact on the their behaviour.
To get the better of this failing, Liang and Lai ( 2002 ) proposed three different classs: incentives, hygiene factors, and media profusion factors. Incentives help the client simplify the transactional procedure ( e.g. easy to subscribe up and order online ) . Hygiene factors help to cut down possible concerns related to electronic minutess ( e.g. security, merchandise trailing ) , whereas media profusion is concerned with the profusion of immediate feedback chanels ( e.g. monetary value comparing ) . Wolfinbarger and Gilly ( 2003 ) tested and presented a big figure of design elements. Wu et Al. ( 2008 ) focused on rousing and enjoyable emotion provinces and added four new elements to the traditional shop statics to prove these provinces. On the other manus, Richard ( 2005 ) and Parboteeah et Al. ( 2009 ) adapted Eroglu et Al. ( 2003 ) classs in their research and found that high task-relevant constituents provide functionality whereas the low task-relevant are related with user satisfaction and pleasance.
However, none of the old surveies covers all the interface elements and relates them straight to consumer purchase purpose – which Hausman and Siekpe ( 2009 ) have done. In their research they captured web design with computing machine factors and human factors. Computer factors are related to functionality and include proficient facets, pilotage, nonpartisanship, and information content which were categorized by Richard ( 2005 ) and Eroglu et Al. ( 2003 ) as high task-relevant. Whereas human factors refer to hedonistic elements and include enjoyment, cognitive result, user authorization, credibleness, ocular visual aspect, and organisation of informational content, categorized as low task-relevant by Richard ( 2005 ) and Eroglu et Al. ( 2003 ) .
Technology Acceptance Model
Childers et Al. ( 2001 ) , ( Chen et al. , 2002 ) , ( Van der Heijden, 2003 ) , ( Tan et al. , 2009 ) , and other surveies built their theoretical accounts upon a well-known theory in IS research: the engineering credence theoretical account ( TAM ) . This theory was foremost developed by Davies in 1989 based on the theory of reasoned action ( TRA ) and the theory of planned behaviour ( Ajzen, 1985 ) TAM proposes the belief, attitude, purpose, behavior insouciant concatenation for construing and calculating engineering credence among users. It implies that any stance with respect to the usage of engineering is chiefly based on two beliefs – perceived utility of the engineering and perceived easiness of usage of the engineering. This theoretical account of attitudes towards utilizing new engineering is determined by those two beliefs and this attitude in bend determines a individual ‘s purpose to utilize it. Davies ( 1993:447 ) defined usefulness as “ aˆ¦the grade to which an person believes that utilizing a peculiar system would heighten his or her occupation public presentation ” and defined the easiness of usage as “ aˆ¦the grade to which an person believes that utilizing a peculiar system would be free of physical and mental attempt ” .
Several surveies use TAM as a model to measure web sites by analyzing the factors that affect the two beliefs ( usefulness and ease-of-use ) and accordingly the credence of the web site. Some of these surveies are ( Benbunan-Fich, 2001 ; Schubert and Dettling, 2002 ; Lee and Lee, 2003 ) . A survey by Moon and Kim ( Moon and Kim, 2001 ) extended the TAM theoretical account by adding sensed gaiety as a new concept. This was followed by research that examined the new theoretical account ‘s ancestors like Van der Heijden ( 2003 ) and Ahn et Al. ( 2007 ) . Ha and Stole ( 2009 ) added trust and enjoyment as new variables to the TAM theoretical account in order to analyze the e-shopping experience. Further research took a different attack by implementing an integrated model which included of import factors from TAM and Human Computer Interaction ( HCI ) theoretical accounts. Aladwani and Palvia ( 2002 ) follow this attack to analyze web content and web visual aspect. Zhang and Dran ( 2000 ) use it for hygiene and incentive factors. In add-on, the five classs, content, easiness of usage, publicity, made-for-the-medium, and emotion, are tested by Venkatesh and Ramesh ( 2006 ) .
Chen et Al. ( 2002 ) , Van der Heijden et Al. ( 2003 ) and Zviran et Al. ( 2005 ) showed a important impact on easiness of usage in either client satisfaction, attitude towards online buying or buying purposes. And it can be argued that this engineering has developed quickly, a fact which can be seen in the velocity with which new engineering is implemented online ; therefore easiness of usage still plays a important function in on-line buying ( Venkatesh and Ramesh, 2006 ; Yoon et al. , 2008 ) . In add-on, Nielsen ( 2003 ) on his web site suggested that website serviceability “ aˆ¦is a quality property that assesses how easy user interfaces are to utilize ” . He besides believed that the easiness of larning with respect to how to pull off the system and memorize the basic maps is considered in footings of serviceability. Harmonizing to these definitions, Flavian et Al. ( 2006 ) referred “ easiness of usage ” to serviceability and reported that most of the e-commerce literature tended to utilize the term serviceability in footings of “ easiness of usage ” .
DCalisir and Calisir, 2004 F. Calisir and F. Calisir, The relation of interface serviceability features, perceived usefulness, and perceived easiness of usage to end-user satisfaction with endeavor resource planning ( ERP ) systems, Comput Hum Behav 20 ( 4 ) ( 2004 ) , pp. 505-515. Article | | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus ( 50 ) assorted vvdiffeDDDifferent website design factors were examined by Calisir and Calisir ( 2004 ) and they found that “ system capableness and user counsel ( computing machine factors ) are determiners of usefulness ” as stated in ( Hausman and Siekpe, 2009:7 ) . Van der Heijden ( 2003 ) besides emphasize the function of human factors on utility.
Chen and Wells ( 1999 ) found that “ factors that make web sites merriment, attractive, and appealing ( human factors ) may besides increase the utility of the site ” as reported in ( Hausman and Siekpe, 2009:7 ) . Turning to the easiness of usage Nathan et Al. ( 2008 ) and Flavian ( 2006 ) claim that the easiness and the velocity of web pilotage ( computing machine factors ) impact the easiness of usage. Elliott and Speck ( 2005 ) highlight that clear organisation, logical flow every bit good as easiness of pilotage ( computing machine factors ) are the major features of the easiness of usage. Furthermore, website design characteristics such as graphical information, colour-coded information and audio interaction ( human factors ) have besides enhanced the easiness of usage ( Song and Zahedi, 2005 ) .
Uses and Gratifications Approach
This theory trades with the facet offered by the country of mass communicating research, suggesting that persons actively use aggregate media to carry through specific demands and that it is utile in explicating go oning usage of a medium ( Katz et al. , 1973 ; Eighmey and McCord, 1998 ) . It was foremost developed by Herta Herzog in 1944 and was fundamentally concerned about utility of the wireless medium, and audience motive and behaviour related to this medium ( Luo, 2002 ) . Afterward, the U & A ; G position was applied in the different mass media contexts like telecasting. Rubin ( 1994 ) found that some Television plans appear to be related to different human demands such as information acquisition and emotional release. Since this theory is based on engagement, interaction with communicating media, and the fulfilment of human demands, and since covering with the Internet requires high degree of consumer engagement, U & A ; G theory has been used in several surveies in order to understand on-line consumer behaviour ( Chen and Wells, 1999 ; Luo, 2002 ; Joines et al. , 2003 ; Sangwan et al. , 2009 ; Shih, 2010 ) . Furthermore, Eighmey and McCord ( 1998 ) studies that informativeness, amusement, and disaffection or annoyance are the prima dimensions for utilizations and satisfactions.
Entertainment includes “ aˆ¦ all website elements that promote enjoyment while utilizing a site ” ( Elliott and Speck, 2005:41 ) . These include hedonistic characteristics like coloring material, music, action, and interactivity ( the human factor ) . Website design that promotes fantasy or suspense can besides supply amusement, as might games, picture, and practical Tours. In add-on, Wu et Al. ( 2008 ) found that color, interactivity, symbolism, and societal facets have a positive impact on rousing and enjoyable emotions. Forrester Research ( 2009 ) reinforced this by printing that 68 % of top cyberspace retail merchants display video content. In add-on, Wang et Al. ( 2009 ) found that web aesthetic entreaty significantly influences consumer satisfaction which is considered as a purchase go-between.
Informativeness can be defined harmonizing to the U & A ; G prespectives as the ability of the site to supply helpful and utile information to the consumer ( Ducoffe, 1996 ) . Lin ( 2007:367 ) provinces that informativeness is “ the ability to inform clients about merchandise options. Informativeness includes information seasonableness, truth, usefulness, and completeness ” . As there is no consequence of clip or infinite when utilizing the Internet, users can garner any needed information instantly ; this is the most of import ground for utilizing the Internet harmonizing to ( Luo, 2002 ) . Therefore, Hausman and Siekpe ( 2009:7 ) suggest that human factors, such as utilizing nomenclature familiar to users will cut down the clip required by the users to acquire the information. Computer factors that affect the nowadayss of information, such as page length and figure of links, are besides really of import in finding informativeness
A desire non to revisit a web site may happen when the client feels irritated ( Gao and Koufaris, 2006 ) . Therefore, It is indispensable to understand the impact of annoyance in e-shopping ( Huang, 2008 ) . Internet users ‘ annoyance may be caused by users ‘ defeat or negative feelings about the construction, pilotage, map, or design elements of a site ( Chen and Wells, 1999 ) . Furthermore, Wang et Al ( 2009 ) indicates that e-commerce web sites that use excessively many lifes and large artworks or that track consumer information ( human factors ) could negatively act upon consumer behaviour. Besides, computing machine factors such as web sites with confusing construction and broken links irritate consumers ( Hausman and Siekpe, 2009 ) .
Attitude Toward the Site
Consumer attitude toward a retail web site is considered an index of a site ‘s effectivity ( Eighmey and McCord, 1998 ) . It has been suggested that it is positively related to buy purpose ( Bruner II and Kumar, 2000 ) . Perceived easiness of usage and utility in several surveies shows a important impact on consumer satisfaction and attitude to the site ( Chen et al. , 2002 ; Van der Heijden et al. , 2003 ; Zviran et al. , 2005 ) . Kim et Al. ( 2009 ) in their research study that e-commerce web sites which use 3D images and music create more positive emotions and entertaining feelings than those who used merely 2D images. Similarly, McMillan et Al. ( 2003 ) , Richard ( 2005 ) , and Elliott and Speck ( 2005 ) highlight the positive impact of amusement on the attitude. Chen and Wells ( 1999 ) proposed that consumer attitude towards a site is associated with its informativeness and amusement. In add-on, Shukla et Al. ( 2010 ) reported that informativeness and amusement are website features that have an consequence on consumer purchase purpose through site satisfaction which shapes consumer attitude towards the site. Furthermore, annoyance is besides related to consumer attitude in that an addition in consumers ‘ positive attitude towards a site is linked to less annoyance ( Huang, 2008 ) . By and large, it can be said based on the utilizations and satisfactions theory that a high degree of informativeness and amusement and low degree of annoyance would positively act upon the attitude towards the site ( Chen et al. , 2002 ) .
The Flow Theory
Flow theory was foremost introduced by Csikszentmihalyi ( 1975 ; 1977 ) who published many Hagiographas about it, and he defined the flow experience as “ the holistic esthesis that people feel when they act with entire engagement ” ( p. 43 ) . He besides added that flow is the feeling when the one says “ that was merriment ” or “ that was gratifying ” . As stated in Hausman and Siekpe ( 2009:8 ) Csikszentmihalyi categorized the online flow as “ machine interactivity, enjoyment, loss of self-consciousness, and as self-reinforcing ” . Furthermore, Csikszentmihalyi ( 1977 ) as reported in ( Novak et al. , 2000: 25 ) provided eight constituents for this optimum experience: “ a clear end, feedback, challenges match accomplishments, concentration and concentrate, control, loss of self-consciousness, transmutation of clip, and the activity becomes autotelic ” . It has been used in a wide scope of contexts which cover different countries of our day-to-day lives like games, work, and athleticss. Consequently, environmental psychological science and flow have the same variables of enjoyment/ pleasance and perceived control/dominance ( Koufaris, 2002 ) .
Subsequently on, Trevino and Webster ( 1992 ) in their survey of human-computer interaction through voice mail and electronic mail determined that type of communicating engineering, perceived ease-of-use, and user ‘s computing machine accomplishments caused to accomplish flow provinces. On the other manus, while flow has been denoted as an advantageous concept to depict human-computer interaction ( Trevino and Webster, 1992 ) , Hoffman and Novak ( 1996 ) focused in their research on flow from an on-line consumer pilotage position and suggested that flow is a procedure that requires a set of ancestors to be achieved and has a group of effects that come as a consequence. They besides assumed that flow in the online shopping context could take to more browse and more shopping. In add-on, they proposed a theoretical account for online flow which consisted of four dimensions: challenge, concentration, control, and high enjoyment. Harmonizing to Novak et Al. ( 2000 ) online consumers who experience flow provinces are those who are wholly involved in the pilotage act in a manner that they wholly focus on the interaction. It is assumed that the immense betterment in cyberspace engineering and broadband velocity would increase interaction with computing machines and better flow, supplying a better shopping experience.
The impact of website design and public presentation on flow was addressed by Xia Skadberg and Kimmel ( 2004 ) as they reported that telepresence, attractiveness interactivity, ease-of-use, challenge, and accomplishments are website design factors that affect flow experience. All this suggests that websites with attractive interfaces that are entertaining, enlightening, or perceived to be utile and easy to utilize would accomplish the province of flow.
Online Shopping Purposes
It was mentioned earlier that purchase purpose affected by the attitude toward the web site ( Bruner II and Kumar, 2000 ) . Kim et Al. ( 2009 ) determined that on-line consumers ‘ emotion was positively related to attitude towards the site which in bend was positively related to buy purpose. Shukla et Al. ( 2010 ) besides reported that there are important effects of website satisfaction attitude towards purchase purposes. Furthermore, the consumer ‘s emotional and cognitive responses towards executing the retail merchant web site ‘s undertakings could find his/her purpose to return for a 2nd visit ( Koufaris, 2002 ) . Song and Zahedi ( 2005 ) have identified three different purposes towards web sites: current purchase determination, revisit in the hereafter, and purchase once more in the hereafter. Because this research focuses on the purchase purpose the first and 3rd picks are adopted.
Sing flow, Hoffman and Novak ( 1996 ) believed that the lone ground for presuming that flow has an impact on the consumer purposes is based on the relationship between flow and the enjoyment. Nevertheless, the old research which studied the flow construct in the online shopping context showed that there is a positive impact related to explorative behaviour, revisiting, and purchase purpose ( Novak et al. , 2000 ; Xia Skadberg and Kimmel, 2004 ) . This thought has besides been highlighted by Sautter et Al. ( 2004 ) who reported that different signifiers of consumers ‘ behaviors like buying or revisiting are related to net shop statics which include flow. Wu and Chang ( 2005 ) in their survey about how flow affects the purchase purposes in members of on-line travel communities emphasized that flow was positively related to buying merchandises offered by the travel web site. In add-on, it was found that when consumers experience an gratifying province and signifier emotional responses toward web sites it is extremely likely that s/he will return to the web site ( Koufaris, 2002 ) . Furthermore, it is besides revealed that an addition in flow – “ a province of entire engagement ” – besides increases buying purposes ( Zhenhui et al. , 2010: 50 ) .
Ajzen, I. ( 1985 ) . From purposes to action: A theory of planned behaviour. In J. Kuhl & A ; J. Beckman
( Eds. ) , Action control: From knowledges to behaviours. New York: Springer, 11-39.
Rubin, Alan M. ( 1994 ) , Media Uses and Effectss: A Uses-and-Gratifications Perspective, in Media Effectss: Progresss in Theory and Research, Jennings Bryant and Dolf Zillmann ( Eds. ) , Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 417-346.