The Operation Of Wcdmasim Information Technology Essay

This papers describes the operation of WCDMAsim, the WCDMA simulator. This simulator theoretical accounts the behaviour and public presentation of a WCDMA base station and nomadic station in a mirrorlike multipath-fading environment. In developing this simulator, every attempt was made to pattern the behaviour of the senders as specified in the WCDMA criterions as developed by European Telecommunication Standards Institute ( ETSI ) .

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The simulator operates on a frame-by-frame footing. One loop of the simulator corresponds to the transmittal and response of one 10 msec wireless frame. The figure of symbols processed per frame depends upon the Spreading Factor ( SF ) and the specific channel format used for that frame.

WCDMAsim comprises of two separate simulators: one for the downlink and one for the uplink. The downlink simulator theoretical accounts the behaviour of a individual WCDMA base station. This simulator has been designed to back up Space Time Transmit Diversity ( STTD ) where the digital signal and a space-time block coded representation of the signal are radiated through separate aerials. The receiving system, which is nomadic station with a individual aerial, detects the coveted symbols via a maximal likeliness based space-time decoding process. The uplink simulator theoretical accounts the behaviour of a singal WCDMA Mobile station in a mirrorlike multipath melting environment with Mutual Access Interference ( MAI ) . In both simulators, the receiving system is modeled as a profligate receiving system.

We at MPRG hope that you find this simulator utile in your instruction and research enterprises. If you have any remarks, delight frontward them to bboyle @ vt.edu.

Installation

To put in WCDMAsim, merely copy the simulation booklet, called “ WCDMASim ” ( citations excluded ) into you MATLAB working directory, afterlife referred to as “ & lt ; WORKDIR & gt ; ” ( citations excluded ) . For MATLAB 5.3 users, the typical on the job directory is & lt ; WORKDIR & gt ; = C: MATLABR11work. However, the existent way to your working directory may be different depending on your system constellation.

Downlink Simulator

Introduction

The downlink simulator emulates the operation of a individual WCDMA base station in a frequence selective, multipath attenuation channel. The simulator makes every effort to pattern the behaviour of a base station as specified in the WCDMA criterions, specifically ETSI TS 125 211 and ETSI TS 125 213.

The simulator was developed utilizing an object-oriented attack and consists of four primary objects:

Transmitter – Generates and combines all of the splintering sequences associated with a WCDMA base station sender.

Modulator – Converts the composite splintering sequence into a digital signal.

Channel – Applies multipath attenuation and noise to the familial signal.

Receiver – Takes the channel end product and extracts the spot sequence from the coveted channel.

These four objects and their interrelatednesss are depicted in Figure 1.

The sender object generates many of dedicated and common channels that an existent WCDMA base station would bring forth[ 1 ]. Supported channels include

Dedicated Physical Channel ( DPCH )

Dedicated Physical Control Channel for the Common Packet Channel ( DPCCH for CPCH )

Primary Common Pilot Channel ( P-CPICH )

Secondary Common Pilot Channel ( S-CPICH )

Primary Common Control Physical Channel ( P-CCPCH )

Secondary Common Control Physical Channel ( S-CCPCH )

Primary Synchronization Channel ( P-SCH )

Secondary Synchronization Channel ( S-SCH )

Physical Downlink Shared Channel ( PDSCH )

The simulator has been designed to back up the slot format for each of the channels. See ETSI TS 125 211 for the formats of the different channels. The simulator assigns Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor ( OVSF ) codifications and scrambling codifications to each channel as specified in ETSI TS 125 213. Presently, the simulator merely supports scrambling codifications generated from long scrambling sequences. Scrambling codifications from Short scrambling sequences are non supported. Note that although all physical channels are shifted via some clip offset, they are still synchronized at the bit degree.

Figure 1. The Objects of the Downlink Simulator and Their Interrelationships.

The modulator object takes the end product of the sender object, which is a additive combination of french friess ( in complex format ) , and converts it into a digital signal. The modulator object performs two maps: pulsation defining and oversampling. The resulting digital signal is so forwarded to the channel object.

The channel object theoretical accounts the mirrorlike multipath channel. The parametric quantities used to specify this channel include figure of multipath constituents, comparative hold of each multipath constituent, mean amplitude of each multipath constituent, and Doppler frequence. The Doppler frequence is applied to each multipath constituent and, together with Clarke ‘s theoretical account, is used to bring forth a Rayleigh fading signal for that peculiar constituent. The mean amplitude and comparative hold parametric quantities are so used to scale and detain ( in increases of trying case ) the fading signal. Once the signal is processed through the fading channel, the channel object adds white Gaussian noise to the signal and forwards it to the receiving system object.

The receiving system objects theoretical accounts an idealised profligate receiving system. The profligate receiving system is idealized in the undermentioned sense: the figure of lights-outs in this receiving system is equal to the figure of multipath constituents and the receiving system has perfect cognition of the hold for each multipath constituent. The idealised profligate receiving system uses the pilot symbols in the channel of involvement to gauge the channel addition of each multipath constituent on a slot-by-slot footing. Then, the receiving system extracts each multipath constituent and employs a maximum ratio combiner to bring forth a trial statistic, which is so evaluated via a simple threshold trial.

Presently, the simulator is designed to run in the MATLAB environment, and operates on a frame-by-frame footing, i.e. , one loop corresponds to the processing of one 10-millisecond wireless frame. The simulator input involves the entrance of constellation information for the sender, modulator, and channel, every bit good as the figure of frames to be processed.

The simulator can besides back up Space Time Transmit Diversity ( STTD ) . When STTD is used, the sender object generates two frames in analogue. Frame # 1 is the original frame, and frame # 2 is a infinite clip block coded representation of the first frame. In an existent system, frame # 1 would be modulated and radiated through antenna # 1, and frame # 2 would be modulated and radiated through antenna # 2. Ideally, each signal would propagate through a statistically independent fading channel, received by a individual receiving system aerial, and so decoded via a maximal likeliness decryption technique. The simulator emulates this procedure by treating frame # 1 and frame # 2 through separate channel objects. Both channel objects have the same multipath power-delay profile. However, the existent attenuation signals for each multipath constituent in each channel are statistically independent. The receiving system object observes the additive amount of the two channel end products and estimates the familial symbols via a simple maximal likeliness decryption technique. For more information sing STTD, refer to ETSI TS 215 211.

The simulator end product is an mistake length sequence. The mistake length sequence contains information about the figure of back-to-back symbols that were received error-free and the figure of back-to-back symbols that were mistakenly received. The sequence is ever initialized so that the first whole number in the sequence represents the figure of right back-to-back determinations. For illustration, suppose that for a peculiar simulation tally, the beginning of the mistake length sequence is

10, 3, 29, 41, 35, 2, i‚?

From this sequence, on can infer that

The first 10 symbols were right detected

The following 3 symbols were falsely detected

The following 29 symbols were right detected

The following 41 symbols were falsely detected

The following 35 symbols were right detected

The following 2 symbols were falsely detected

This end product format is non merely utile for finding the BER, but besides for finding how the mistakes were clustered

Runing the Downlink Simulator

The downlink simulator can be run from either a Graphical User Interface ( GUI ) or the MATLAB bid line

Using the GUI

To run the simulator via the GUI, the user must foremost travel to the top-level directory for WCDMAsim, & lt ; WORKDIR & gt ; WCDMASim.[ 2 ]

Then, in the MATLAB bid window, type WCDMASim and imperativeness Enter. The undermentioned duologue will look

Figure 2. Top Level Dialog for WCDMAsim.

Press the Simulate Downlink button. The undermentioned duologue will so look

Figure 3. Sender Configuration Dialog for Downlink Simulator.

Use the pop-up list boxes and the cheque box to put the constellation of the sender. Mention to the ETSI TS 215 211 for more information sing the physical bed channels and their formats. When the Transmit with STTD checkbox is checked, so the sender will utilize Space-Time Transmit Diversity.

Once the duologue is configured, the user can press Next & gt ; & gt ; to travel on to the new duologue or Cancel to go out all duologues and return to the MATLAB control window. If the Number of Staying DPCHs pop-up box is set to 0 and Next & gt ; & gt ; is pressed so the Modulator Configuration duologue will look ( this will be presented subsequently ) . If the Number of Staying DPCHs pop-up box is greater than 0 and Next & gt ; & gt ; is pressed so the following duologue will look[ 3 ].

Figure 4. Configuration Dialog for the Remaining DPDCHs ( i.e. , those DPDCHs, other that the coveted DPDCH, that are being processed by the base station.

This duologue is used to configure all of the staying DPCHs, i.e. , those DPCHs that are allocated to other users instead than the user of involvement. The GUI allows the user to configure the staying DPCHs in groups of four. Therefore, if the Number of Remaining DPCHs is set to 5 in the old duologue ( i.e. , the Transmitter Configuration duologue ) , so two Staying DPCHs duologues will look, where the first will configure four DPCHs and the following duologue will configure the concluding DPCH.

Choose the coveted format from the pop-up boxes configures the staying DPCHs. Once all of the DPCHs in that duologue are configured, so imperativeness Next & gt ; & gt ; to either configure more DPCHs ( if necessary ) or to travel on the Modulator Configuration duologue ( if all staying DPCHs are configured ) . Pressing the & lt ; & lt ; Back button will either return the interface to the old Remaining DPCHs duologue or to the Transmitter Configuration duologue. Pressing the Cancel button will shut the interface and return processing to the MATLAB bid prompt.

Once all the staying DPCHs are configured and Next & gt ; & gt ; is pressed, the Modulator Configuration duologue will look.

Figure 5. Transition Configuration Dialog for the Downlink Simulator.

This duologue is used to put the length of the pulsation determining map ( in footings of french friess ) and the oversampling factor ( i.e. , the figure of signal sample points per bit continuance ) . Both of these values can be set through the appropriate pop-up window. Note that the Pulse Length pop-up window merely provides even values. Odd values are non supported in this simulation.

Besides, note that the Oversampling Factor pop-up window can back up any integer value between 2 and 10. This is an arbitrary restriction of the interface. In world, the simulation can back up any positive whole number value for the Oversampling Factor. To run the simulation at higher oversampling rates, the user should either ( 1 ) run the simulation from the MATLAB bid line or ( 2 ) edit the GUI ( which is a straightforward enterprise ) .

Once these parametric quantities are set and Next & gt ; & gt ; is pressed, the Channel Configuration duologue appears. If & lt ; & lt ; Back is pressed, so the GUI returns to either the Remaining DPCHs duologue or the Transmitter Configuration duologue ( if the figure or Staying DPCHs is set to 0 ) . Pressing Cancel closes the GUI and returns treating to the MATLAB bid window.

Figure 6 Channel Configuration Dialog for the Downlink Simulator.

This duologue is used to configure the communicating channel. Through this duologue, the user can put the Bit Energy to Noise Density Ratio ( EbNo ) and the maximal speed of the nomadic receiving system, which in bend determines the attenuation of the channel. Entering the coveted values in the associated edit boxes sets the EbNo and maximal speed. The EbNo edit box can accept any existent valued figure, nevertheless the Maximum Velocity edit box can merely accept non-negative, existent valued Numberss.

The Channel Configuration duologue is besides used to put the multipath profile. Using this duologue, one can stipulate a six-path, mirrorlike multipath channel with the restraint that the first way has the highest mean power. All holds must be expressed in units of nanoseconds and all comparative amplitudes must be expressed as a dubnium relation to the amplitude of the first multipath constituents. Consequently, the value of the Relative Amplitude for the first multipath constituent will ever be 0, and the values of all the other multipath constituents must be a non-positive figure. Note that for every hold ( or amplitude ) that is entered, there must be an associated amplitude ( or hold ) .

Once the channel is configured and the Next & gt ; & gt ; button is pressed, the Simulation Parameters duologue appears. If the & lt ; & lt ; Back button is pressed so GUI returns to the Modulator Configuration duologue. Pressing the Cancel button closes the GUI and returns treating to the MATLAB bid window.

Figure 7. Simulation Parameters Dialog for the Downlink Simulator. Used to come in the figure of wireless frames to be processed.

The Simulation Parameters duologue is used to put the figure of wireless frames that the simulator will treat. Merely positive whole number values are allowed. Once this parametric quantity is set and the Go button is pressed, so the simulation will put to death and a delay saloon, which displays the simulator advancement, will look.

Figure 8. Simulation Status Bar.

Pressing the & lt ; & lt ; Back button will return the GUI to the Channel Configuration duologue. . Pressing the Cancel button closes the GUI and returns treating to the MATLAB bid window.

Using the MATLAB Command Line

To run the simulator from the MATLAB bid line either travel to the directory that contains the plan, & lt ; WORKDIR & gt ; WCDMASim/DownlinkSimulator, or do certain that directory is in the MatlabPath[ 4 ]. Then the bid for put to deathing the simulation is

ErrorRun = DownlinkSimulator ( SimConfig )

Input Parameter: SimConfig

The input parametric quantity, SimConfig, is a construction that contains the following 15 Fieldss

Table 1. William claude dukenfields in the SimConfig Structure

SimConfig William claude dukenfields

DesiredDPCHformatID

NumDPCCHforCPCH

EbNo_dB

Num_DPCH

NumS_CPICH

Speed

OtherDPCHformatID

STTD

Delaies

S_CCPCHformatID

PulseLength

Amplitudes

PDSCHformatID

SamplesPerChip

Iterations

The balance of this subdivision will concentrate on the description of these Fieldss.

DesiredDPCHformatID

The DesiredDPCHformatID field contains the format ID for the Desired Dedicated Physical Channel, which is the DPCH associated with the user of involvement. All of the other DPCHs, referred to as the Other DPCHs, correspond to DPCHs that originate from the same base station as the Desired DPCH but are intended for other users. Hence, they may be regarded as a beginning of intervention, under certain scenarios.

In the simulator ‘s current constellation, 17 possible values are allowed. The following table specifies the allowable format ID values and their associated parametric quantities.

Table 2. DPCH Format IDs and Field Parameters

DesiredDPCHformatID

SF

Ndata

NTPC

NTCFI

Npilot

0

512

4

2

0

4

3

512

2

2

2

4

5

256

16

2

0

2

8

256

14

2

2

2

11

256

14

2

0

4

14

256

12

2

2

4

17

256

10

2

0

8

20

256

8

2

2

8

23

128

34

2

0

4

26

128

32

2

2

4

27

128

30

2

0

8

32

128

28

2

2

8

35

64

60

4

8

8

38

32

140

4

8

8

41

16

288

8

8

16

44

8

608

8

8

16

47

4

1248

8

8

16

The WCDMA criterion, ETSI TS 125 211 V3.2.0, specifies 49 different formats for the DPCH, many of which are non supported by the simulation. The format IDs, which are non specified in the above tabular array, require certain capablenesss that are non yet incorporated into the simulator. These include WCDMA compressed manner and other transmittal clip decrease methods. Once these capablenesss are added to the simulator, the full scope of DPCH formats will be included.

NumDPCH

The NumDPCH field contains the figure of Other Dedicated Physical Channels that are to be included in the simulation. As mentioned before, the Other DPCHs refer to DPCHs that originate from the same base station as the Desired DPCH, but are intended for other users. NumDPCH can take on any non-negative whole number.

OtherDPCHformatID

The OtherDPCHformatID field is an array of length NumDPCH. Each component in the array contains the format ID for one of the Other DPCHs. Table 2 provides the format IDs and the associated format parametric quantities for DPCHs.

S_CCPCHformatID

The S_CCPCHformatID field contains the format IDs for the Secondary Common Control Physical Channel. Up to eighteen possible values are allowed. The following table specifies the allowable format IDs and their corresponding format parametric quantities.

Table 3. Secondary CCPCH William claude dukenfields

S_CCPCHformatID

SF

Ndata

NTFCI

Npilot

0

256

20

0

0

1

256

12

0

8

2

256

18

2

0

3

256

10

2

8

4

128

40

0

0

5

128

32

0

8

6

128

38

2

0

7

128

30

2

8

8

64

72

8

0

9

64

64

8

8

10

32

152

8

0

11

32

144

8

8

12

16

312

8

0

13

16

296

8

16

14

8

632

8

0

15

8

616

8

16

16

4

1272

8

0

17

4

1256

8

16

PDSCHformatID

The PDSCHformatID field contains the format IDs for the Physical Downlink Shared Channel. Seven possible values are allowed for this field. These values and their associated parametric quantities are described below.

Table 4. PDSCH William claude dukenfields

PDSCHformatID

SF

Ndata

0

256

20

1

128

40

2

64

80

3

32

160

4

16

320

5

8

640

6

4

1280

NumDPCCHforCPCH

The NumDPCCHforCPCH field contains the figure of Digital Physical Control Channels for the Common Packet Channel that will be used in the downlink. The allowable values for this field are the non-negative whole numbers.

NumS_CPICH

The NumS_CPICH field contains the figure of Secondary Common Pilot Channels that will be used in the downlink. The allowable values for this file are the non-negative whole numbers.

STTD

The STTD field is a flag that will find if Space-Time Transmit Diversity is employed ( or non employed ) . The allowable values for STTD are 0 and 1. If STTD is set to 0, so the simulation will non utilize Space-Time Transmit Diversity. If STTD is set to 1, so the simulation will utilize Space-Time Transmit Diversity.

PulseLength

The PulseLength field determines the length of the sender ‘s pulse defining filter and the length of the receiving system ‘s matched filter. The allowable values for the PulseLength field are the positive integers-0 is non an allowable value for this field.

SamplesPerChip

The SamplesPerChip field determines the figure of signal samples per come offing period. The allowable values for this field are the positive whole numbers.

EbNo_dB

The EbNo_dB field determines the Bit Energy to Noise Density ratio in dBs. The allowable values for this field span the full existent line.

Speed

The Velocity field determines the maximal velocity of the nomadic platform, which is used to find the Doppler spread of the channel. This simulation assumes that each constituent of the mirrorlike multipath channel has the same Doppler spread. The allowable values for this field are the non-negative existent Numberss. The unit of step for the Velocity field is kilometres per hr.

Delaies

The Delays field is an array that contains the clip hold for each constituent of the mirrorlike multipath channel. The length of the Delay field determines the entire figure of multipath constituents in the channel. Typically, the first component in this array is set to 0 ( for-say-the LOS constituents ) , nevertheless that demand non be the instance. In add-on, it is a common pattern for the Delay field to incorporate a monotonically increasing array so that the higher order constituents have higher multipath holds. However, this besides does non necessitate to be the instance. The lone demand for the Delay field is that the array elements must be non-negative existent Numberss. The unit of step for each component in this field is nanoseconds.

Amplitudes

The Amplitudes field is an array that contains the mean comparative amplitude for each of the multipath constituents. The length of the Amplitude field must be the same as the length of the Delay field. Further, there is a one-to-one correspondence between the elements in the Delay and Amplitude Fieldss. For illustration, if the ith component in the Amplitude and Delay Fieldss are i?? and i?? , severally. Then the ith multipath constituent has a hold of i?? and an mean comparative amplitude of i?? .

The entries into the Amplitude field are mean amplitudes that are set comparative to the amplitude of the strongest multipath constituent ( which is typically-but non always-the LOS constituent, presuming that it exists ) . Consequently, one component in the array should be set to zero[ 5 ].

The allowable values for each component in the Amplitude field are the non-positive existent Numberss.

Iterations

The Iterations field determines the entire figure of wireless frames that will be processed in the simulation. The allowable values for this field are the positive whole numbers.

An Example of the SimConfig Structure

Below is an illustration of the SimConfig construction. Mention to MATLABi?” certification for more information refering constructions.

A» SimConfig

SimConfig =

S_CCPCHformatID: 9

PDSCHformatID: 4

DesiredDPCHformatID: 11

Num_DPCH: 12

NumDPCCHforCPCH: 5

NumS_CPICH: 7

STTD: 1

OtherDPCHformatID: [ 17 14 41 44 5 20 32 35 20 23 29 32 ]

PulseUpperBound: 5

SamplesPerChip: 5

EbNo_dB: 10

Speed: 60

Delaies: [ 0 1.0240e-006 2.0480e-006 8.1950e-006 ]

Amplitudes: [ 0 -3 -6 -13 ]

Iterations: 900

End product Parameter: Mistake Run

The end product parametric quantity, ErrorRun, is a sequence that tracks the figure of mistakes that occurred during the simulation and where they occurred in the simulation. The latter information allows one to non merely find the mean spot error rate, but besides to find how the mistakes were clustered, which is necessary for the calculation of burst mistake statistics.

The ErrorRun sequence is a aggregation of positive whole numbers that denote the figure of back-to-back correct determinations made, followed by the figure of back-to-back mistakes made, followed by the figure of back-to-back correct determinations made, and so away. As an illustration, see the undermentioned ErrorRun sequence.

5,1,10,4,20, aˆ¦

From this sequence, we can find that

The first 5 symbols were received without mistake

The following symbol was received in mistake

The following 10 symbols were received without mistake

The following 4 symbols were received in mistake

The following 20 symbols were right received

In order to find the initial province of the ErrorRun sequence, the simulation is created so that the really first symbol is right received. Therefore, the really first component of the sequence will be associated with right responses, and all even elements of the sequence will be associated with mistake events. Consequently, one can find the mean spot error rate, BERave, by ( 1 ) calculating the amount of all the even elements in the sequence, ( 2 ) calculating the amount of all the elements in the sequence, and ( 3 ) taking the ratio of the even amount to the entire amount.

Uplink Simulator

Introduction

The uplink simulator emulates the operation of a WCDMA nomadic station in a frequence selective, multipath attenuation channel. A flow diagram of the simulator is provided in Figure 2. The simulator makes every effort to pattern the behaviour of a nomadic station as specified in the WCDMA criterions ETSI TS 125 211 and ETSI TS 125.213. Consequently, the simulator emulates up to six Dedicated Physical Data Channels ( DPDCHs ) and the Dedicated Physical Control Channel ( DPCCH ) . The common physical channels ( such as the Random Access Channel and the Physical Common Packet Channel ) and the channel cryptography ( specified in ETSI TS 125.212 ) are non modeled. The simulator operates on a frame-by-frame footing, i.e. , one loop corresponds to the processing of one 10 msec wireless frame.

The simulator generates a Common Access Interference ( MAI ) environment by bring forthing signals from “ interfering Mobiles, ” which are assumed to run in the same cell. A signifier of power control is assumed in this simulation. The mean standard power from each interfering Mobile is equal to the norm received power from Mobile of involvement. In order to destruct any frame-level synchronism, the simulator generates a random beginning for each MAI signal, which is specified in units of bit interval.

Each transmitted signal ( desired or interfering ) passes through a mirrorlike multipath attenuation channel. The parametric quantities used to specify this channel include figure of multipath constituents, comparative hold of each multipath constituent, mean amplitude of each multipath constituent, and Doppler spread. The Doppler spread is applied to each multipath constituent and, together with Clarke ‘s theoretical account, is used to bring forth a Rayleigh fading signal for that peculiar constituent. The mean amplitude and comparative hold parametric quantities are so used to scale and detain ( in increases of trying case ) the fading signal, severally.

One of import simplification in this simulation involves the channels between each of the interfering Mobiles and the base station receiving system. These channels use the same multipath parametric quantities. Specifically, the figure of multipath constituents, comparative hold, mean amplitude, and Doppler spread ( derived from the maximal speed ) , which are used to specify the multipath channel between the Mobile of involvement and the base station, are besides used to specify the channel between each of the interfering Mobiles and the base station receiving system. However, the attenuation signals for each multipath constituent of each interfering Mobile are independently generated.

The base station receives the coveted signal, all interfering signals, and white Gaussian noise. The simulator assumes that the base station employs an idealised profligate receiving system. The profligate receiving system is idealized in the undermentioned sense: the figure of lights-outs in this receiving system is equal to the figure of multipath constituents and the receiving system has perfect cognition of the hold of each multipath constituent. The idealised profligate receiving system uses the pilot symbols in the DPCCH to gauge the stage offset generated by the channel. Then, the receiving system extracts each multipath constituent and employs an equal addition combiner to bring forth a trial statistic, which is evaluated via a simple zero-threshold trial.

The simulator end product is an mistake length sequence. The mistake length sequence contains information about the figure of back-to-back symbols that were received error-free and the figure of back-to-back symbols that were mistakenly received. The sequence is ever initialized so that the first whole number in the sequence represents the figure of right back-to-back determinations. For illustration, suppose that for a peculiar simulation tally, the beginning of the mistake length sequence is

10, 4, 20, 1, 30, 2, i‚?

From this sequence, one can infer that

The first 10 symbols were right detected

The following 4 symbols were falsely detected

The following 20 symbols were right detected

The following symbol was falsely detected

The following 30 symbols were right detected

The following 2 symbols were falsely detected

This end product format is non merely utile for finding the BER, but besides for finding how the mistakes were clustered.

Runing the Uplink Simulator

The uplink simulation can be run either via a GUI or the MATLABi?” bid line.

Using the GUI

To run the simulator from the GUI, you must first move to the top-level directory for WCDMAsim, & lt ; WORKDIR & gt ; WCDMASim.[ 6 ]

Invoke MATLABi?” and, in the MATLABi?” bid window, type WCDMASim and imperativeness Enter. The undermentioned duologue will look

Figure 9 Top Level Dialog for WCDMAsim.

Press the Simulate Uplink button. The undermentioned duologue will so look.

Figure 10 WCDMA Uplink Simulator Configuration Dialog.

The edit boxes, pop-up list boxes, and the cheque box are used to configure the simulation. Once the simulation is configured to the user ‘s satisfaction, the simulation can so be executed by snaping on the GO pushbutton. The balance of this subdivision describes the assorted parametric quantities that one can redact through this duologue.

Number of Iterations. This edit box determines the figure of 10 msec wireless frames that the simulator will treat. The default value is 1000 frames. To modify this, merely enter in the coveted figure of frames. The figure must be a positive whole number.

EbNo ( dubnium ) . This edit box determines the mean Bit Energy to Noise Ratio ( EbNo ) of the strongest multipath constituent in dBs. The default value is 20 dubnium. To modify this value, merely enter in the coveted value in dBs. Any real-valued figure may be entered.

Velocity ( km/hr ) . This edit box determines the speed of the nomadic station in units of kilometres per hr. The default value is 5 km/hr, a alert walk. To modify this value, merely enter in the coveted figure in km/hr. Any non-negative existent figure may be entered.

Maximal Offset for Interferes. This edit box determines the maximal allowable beginning ( in footings of bit continuance ) for each of the interfering signals. Each interfering signal is offset from the coveted signal via some random sum. This is necessary because, in the uplink, the wireless frames from different nomadic Stationss are non synchronized. This parametric quantity establishes an upper edge on the possible beginning values. The default value is 512 french friess. To modify this value, merely come in the coveted value. This value must be a positive whole number.

# of Interferers. This edit box determines the figure of interfering nomadic Stationss that are besides runing in this simulation. The default value is 5. To modify this value, merely enter in the coveted figure. This figure must be a non-negative whole number.

Multipath Profile. Through the GUI, one may stipulate a mirrorlike multipath channel with no more than six constituents. One specifies a multipath constituent by come ining the comparative hold ( in nanoseconds ) and mean amplitude ( in dubnium ) . The comparative hold must be a non-negative existent figure, and the mean power may be any existent figure. The default multipath channel is the LOS channel, which has merely one multipath constituent with a comparative hold of 0 Ns and an mean amplitude of 0 dubnium.

Transmitter Pulse Shape Duration. This edit box specifies the length of the pulse form filter at the sender and the matched filter at the receiving system in footings of bit continuance. The default value is 10 french friess. To modify this value, merely enter in the coveted figure. However, this figure must be a positive, even integer. In a non-integer is entered, so the following duologue will look

Figure 11. This duologue appears when a non-integer value is entered for the Pulse Length.

Once the OK button is pressed, the edit box will incorporate the value of the following higher even integer. If an uneven whole number is entered, so the following duologue will look

Figure 12. This duologue appears when an uneven valued whole number is entered for the Pulse Length.

Once the OK button is pressed, the edit box will be incremented to the following higher whole number.

Oversampling Rate. This edit box specifies the figure of signal samples per bit. The default value is 5. To modify this value, merely enter in the coveted figure. This figure must be a positive whole number.

Spreading Factor. This pop-up list box specifies the distributing factor to be used by the desired Mobile. Simply choose the coveted spreading factor from the list provided in the pop-up box.

Note: if the figure of DPDCHs ( # of DPDCHs edit box ) exceeds 1, so the lone allowable distributing factor is 4. If the value in the # of DPDCHs edit box exceeds 1, and a larger value is selected for the spreading factor, the following duologue will look

Figure 13. This duologue appears whenever the Number of DPDCHs is greater than 1 and the usage enters an Spreading Factor that exceeds 4.

Once the OK button is pressed, the value in the # of DPDCHs edit box will be set to 1.

# of Pilot Symbols. This pop-up list box specifies the figure of pilot symbols that are used in the Dedicated Physical Control Channel ( DPCCH ) of the coveted signal. In the simulation, the base station receiving system uses the pilot symbols to gauge the stage of each multipath constituent of the channel on a frame-by-frame footing[ 7 ]. Simply choose the coveted value from the list provided in the pop-up box.

# of DPDCHs. This pop-up list box specifies the figure of DPDCHs used by the nomadic sender of involvement. Harmonizing to the relevant WCDMA criterion

( ETSI TS 125 213 V3.2.0 ) , each nomadic sender can back up from one to six DPDCHs. However, there are some limitations between the figure of DPDCHs employed and the allowable spreading factor. If the nomadic station uses one DPDCH, so any acceptable spreading factor ( i.e. , 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 138, 256, 512 ) is allowed. However, if the nomadic station uses two or more DPDCHs, so merely a spreading factor of 4 must be used[ 8 ].

If the Spreading Factor pop-up box is set to a value of 8 or higher, and the # of DPDCHs pop-up box is set to two or higher, the following duologue will look

Figure 14. This duologue appears whenever the Spreading Factor exceeds 4 and the user sets the figure of DPDCHs pop-up box to 2 through 6.

and the Spreading Factor pop-up box will be reset to four. Pressing the OK button will unclutter the duologue and return control back to the WCDMA Uplink Simulator window.

Burdening Factors: DPDCH and DPCCH. The WCDMA criterion ( ETSI TS 125 213 V3.2.0 ) , supports the weighting of the amplitude of both DPCCH and the DPDCHs. For information on how these weights are applied, refer to Figure 1 of the aforesaid criterion. Up to 16 values runing from 0 to 15 are allowed. Each value represents an amplitude value in conformity with to the following tabular array.

Table 5. Maping Between Weighting Values and Amplitudes

Burdening Value

Equivalent Amplitude

15

1.0000

14

0.9333

13

0.8666

12

0.8000

11

0.7333

10

0.6667

9

0.6000

8

0.5333

7

0.4667

6

0.4000

5

0.333

4

0.2667

3

0.2000

2

0.1333

1

0.0667

0

0.0000

Include Multipath in Interferers. In order to diminish the run-time of this simulation, the user may take to pattern the channel between each of the interfering nomadic Stationss and the base station as an linear white Gaussian noise channel. This will relieve the simulator of the demands of bring forthing a multipath channel for each interferer and treating the interfering signals through those channels. Of class, this may impact the truth of the simulation. For those users that wish to include a multipath channel for each of the interferers, merely look into the Include Multipath in Interferers checkbox.

If this box is checked, so the simulator will bring forth a multipath channel in conformity with the mean power and hold profile specified to the left of the checkbox. The desired Mobile and all of the interfering Mobiles will hold the exact same multipath hold and the exact same mean power profile. However, the attenuation signals for each nomadic station will be indiscriminately and independently generated[ 9 ].

The GO button: After all of the simulation parametric quantities are set ; the user can raise the simulation by pressing the GO button. Once the GO button is pressed, the simulation will put to death and a delay saloon, which displays the simulator advancement, will look.

Figure 15 Simulation Status Bar.

Using the MATLAB Command Line

To run the simulator from the MATLAB bid line either travel to the directory that contains the codification, & lt ; WORKDIR & gt ; WCDMASim/UplinkSimulator, or do certain that directory is in the MatlabPath[ 10 ]. Then the bid for put to deathing the simulation is

CorrectErrorRun=UplinkSimulator ( UplinkSimConfig )

Input Parameter: UplinkSimConfig

The input parametric quantity, UplinkSimConfig, is a construction that contains the following 15 Fieldss

Table 6. William claude dukenfields in the UplinkSimConfig Structure

UplinkSimConfig William claude dukenfields

NumIterations

NumPilot

Delay

PulseLength

MaxOffset

Ampere

SamplesPerChip

NumInterferer

BetaD

EbNo_db

NumDPDCH

BetaC

Speed

SF

MPathFlag

The balance of this subdivision will concentrate on the description of these Fieldss.

NumIterations

The NumIterations field determines the entire figure of wireless frames that the simulation will treat. The allowable values for this field are the positive whole numbers.

PulseLength

The PulseLength field determines the length of the sender ‘s pulse defining filter and the length of the receiving system ‘s matched filter. The allowable values for the PulseLength field are the positive integers-0 is non an allowable value for this field.

SamplesPerChip

The SamplesPerChip field determines the figure of signal samples per come offing period. The allowable values for this field are the positive whole numbers.

EbNo_db

The EbNo_db field determines the Bit Energy to Noise Density ratio in dBs. The allowable values for this field span the full existent line.

Speed

The Velocity field determines the velocity of the nomadic station, which is used to find the Doppler spread of the channel. This simulation assumes that each constituent of the mirrorlike multipath channel has the same Doppler spread. The allowable values for this field are the non-negative existent Numberss. The unit of step for the Velocity field is kilometres per hr.

NumPilot

The NumPilot field determines the figure of pilot symbols in each slot of the DPCCH. The allowable values for the NumPilot field are 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, and 8.

MaxOffset

The MaxOffset field determines the maximal allowable beginning ( in footings of bit continuance ) for each of the interfering signals. Each interfering signal is offset from the coveted signal via some random sum. This is necessary because, in the uplink of an existent system, the wireless frames from different nomadic Stationss are non synchronized. The allowable values for this field are the positive whole numbers.

NumInterferer

The NumInterferer field determines the figure of interfering nomadic Stationss that are besides runing in this simulation. The allowable values for this field are the non-negative whole numbers.

NumDPDCH

The NumDPDCH field determines the figure of DPDCHs that the nomadic station is utilizing in the uplink. The allowable values for the NumDPDCH field are the whole numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. If NumDPDCH is greater than 1, so the SF field must be set to 4.

SF

The SF field determines the spreading factor. The coveted and all interfering nomadic Stationss use the same spreading factor. The allowable values for the SF field are the whole numbers 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, and 512. If SF is set to 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, or 512, so the NumDPDCH field must be set to 1. If SF is set to 4, so the NumDPDCH field can take on the values 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6.

Delay

The Delay field is an array that contains the comparative clip hold for each constituent of the mirrorlike multipath channel. The length of the array determines the entire figure of multipath constituents in the channel. Typically, the first component in this array is set to zero ( for-say-the LOS constituents ) , nevertheless that demand non be the instance. Besides, it is a common pattern for the Delay field to incorporate a monotonically increasing array so that the higher order constituents have higher multipath holds. However, this is non a demand. The lone demand for the array is that the array elements must be non-negative existent Numberss. The unit of step for each component in this array is nanoseconds.

Ampere

The Amp field is an array that contains the mean comparative amplitude for each of the multipath constituents. The length of the array must be the same as the length of the array in the Delay field. Further, there is a one-to-one correspondence between the elements in the Delay and Amp arrays. For illustration if the ith component in the Delay and Amp arrays are i?? and i?? , severally. Then the ith multipath constituent has a hold of i?? and an mean comparative amplitude of i?? .

The entries into the Amp array are mean amplitudes that are set comparative to the amplitude of the strongest multipath constituent ( which is typically-but non always-the LOS constituents, presuming that it exists ) . Consequently, one component in the array should be set to zero[ 11 ].

The allowable values for each component in the array are the non-positive existent Numberss.

BetaC and BetaD

The BetaC and BetaD Fieldss determine the weighting of the DPCCH and DPDCH ( s ) , severally. The WCDMA criterion ( ETSI TS 125 213 V3.2.0 ) , supports the weighting of the amplitude of both DPCCH and the DPDCHs. For information on how these weights are applied, refer to Figure 1 of the aforesaid criterion. The allowable values and their associated weights are provided in the undermentioned tabular array.

Table 7. Maping Between Weighting Values and Amplitudes

Burdening Value

Equivalent Amplitude

Burdening Value

Equivalent Amplitude

15

1.0000

7

0.4667

14

0.9333

6

0.4000

13

0.8666

5

0.333

12

0.8000

4

0.2667

11

0.7333

3

0.2000

10

0.6667

2

0.1333

9

0.6000

1

0.0667

8

0.5333

0

0.0000

MPathFlag

The MPathFlag field determines if multipath extension will be included in the coevals of the intervention. If MPathFlag is set to 1, so all signals from the interfering Mobiles will travel through a mirrorlike multipath channel. If MPathFlag is set to 0, so all signals from interfering nomadic Stationss will travel through an linear white Gaussian noise channel.

The latter option may be chosen to diminish the run-time of this simulation. The choice of MPathFlag =0 will relieve the simulator from the demands of bring forthing a multipath channel for each interferer and treating the interfering signals through those channels. Of class, this may impact the truth of the simulation.

If MPathFlag is set to 1, so the simulator will bring forth a multipath channel in conformity with the mean amplitude and hold profile specified to the left of the checkbox. The desired Mobile and all of the interfering Mobiles will hold the exact same multipath hold and the exact same mean amplitude profile. However, the attenuation signals for each nomadic station will be indiscriminately and independently generated[ 12 ].

An Example of the UplinkSimConfig Structure

Below is an illustration of the UplinkSimConfig construction. Mention to the MATLAB certification for more information refering the usage of constructions.

A» UplinkSimConfig

UplinkSimConfig =

NumIterations: 100

EbNo_db: 3

Speed: 60

MaxOffset: 512

NumInterferer: 10

Delay: 0

Ampere: 0

PulseLength: 12

SamplesPerChip: 5

SF: 64

NumPilot: 8

NumDPDCH: 1

BetaD: 15

BetaC: 5

MPathFlag: 0

The Output Parameter: CorrectErrorRun

The end product parametric quantity, CorrectErrorRun, is a sequence that tracks the figure of mistakes that occurred during the simulation and where they occurred in the simulation. The latter information allows one to non merely find the mean spot error rate, but besides how the mistakes were clustered, which will give manner to split mistake statistics.

The CorrectErrorRun sequence is a aggregation of positive whole numbers that denote the figure of back-to-back correct determinations made, followed by the figure of back-to-back mistakes made, followed by the figure of back-to-back correct determinations made, and so away. As an illustration, see the undermentioned CorrectErrorRun sequence

20,5,33,6,45, aˆ¦

From this sequence, we can find that

The first 20 symbols were received without mistake

The following 5 symbols were received in mistake

The following 33 symbols were received without mistake

Each of the following 6 symbols were received in mistake

The following 45 symbols were right received

In order to find the initial province of the CorrectErrorRun sequence, the simulation is designed so that the really first symbol is right received. Therefore, the really first component of the sequence will be associated with right responses, and all even elements of the sequence will be associated with mistake events. Consequently, one can find the mean spot error rate, BERave, by ( 1 ) calculating the amount of all the even elements in the sequence, ( 2 ) calculating the amount of all the elements in the sequence, and ( 3 ) taking the ratio of the even amount to the entire amount.