The Role Of Information Systems In India Information Technology Essay

MGNREGS, an Indian rural development enterprise at national degree, aims to lend to the overall betterment in livelihood security of the rural families. The strategy encourages rural families to fall in the strategy voluntarily and bask the benefits of the strategy, acquire paid for their labour parts for a period of one hundred yearss in a fiscal twelvemonth in order to develop substructures in the small town. MGNREGS is an Act which came into force in the twelvemonth 2005, has actively considered debut of information and communicating engineerings ( ICT ) in a big graduated table [ 1 ] .

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Role of ICT in development procedure in Indian context is good appreciated. There are many mission manner undertakings ( MMPs ) in India under National e-Governance Plan ( NeGP ) which are either in the procedure of execution or have been commissioned. NeGP architecture recognizes the superimposed belongingss of national administration which are in the signifiers of “ national bureau ” , “ province bureau ” and “ Panchayat Raj Institutions ( PRI ) ” . Citizens are crystalline to the coordination and interfaces established to widen services [ 2 ] . As such there are 20 seven MMPs holding eight constituents under NeGP. In Figure 1 such MMPs are presented for grasp. Listed undertakings are non thorough, but declarative to the schemes that Indian e-Governance systems strive to supply value added services to the citizens.


Income Tax

Cardinal Excise



National ID


Industry Enterprise





Land Records



Commercial Tax

Gram Panchayat



Employment Exchange




India Portal




States can add up to 5 province specific undertakings

Figure 1: MMPs under NeGP [ 2 ]

This MMP attack suggests architectural jussive moods since citizens need to have coveted services through a well designed bringing system and these services are designed with the range to distribute at national degree. These jussive moods are acquiring more critical maintaining in position the execution program for fusion of ICT mediated services in India is in the docket and is termed as “ Unique Identification Authority of India ” ( UIDAI ) [ 3 ] . MGNREGS has the possible to for holding a MMP to pull off the volume and criticalness it offers and acquiring linked to UIDAI.

In this paper it is argued that capturing properties of information systems architecture and reflecting them in the MGNREGS strategy which is of such national degree and is rather an of import subscriber to the rural development. MGNREGS needs to prolong the established complex relationships among all stakeholders, procedures and engineerings which may enforce restrictive challenges during scaling up the undertaking and therefore architectural positions are rather of import.

Organization of this paper is as follows. In the subdivision two, debut information systems ( IS ) architecture is given for development of a conceptual apprehension of the critical relationships among assorted e-governance stakeholders. It besides emphasizes on the information engineering ( IT ) architecture in order to aline the IS bringings planned for e-governance systems. In subdivision three, a model is presented to capture all the dimensions of IS architecture and discuss possible relationships among assorted stakeholders. In subdivision four, MGNREGS is discussed with specific mentions to the guidelines framed and is evaluated through the proposed architecture. In subdivision five, the findings are discussed for understanding the relevancy of holding a incorporate position of e-governance applications being deployed in India.


Information systems architecture ( ISA ) mostly professes a cohesive relationship among components of the systems planned for presenting coveted services. Components of the systems are related to organisation for which systems are built, processes aimed at looking after the bringing and engineerings used for heightening quality of service ( QoS ) bringing. Besides, people besides constitute a critical component of these systems [ 4 ] . This scenario is rather complex since most of the components have their independent functions while lending to the larger organisational demands. Such complex state of affairss are better appreciated through effectual information systems ( IS ) be aftering [ 5 ] . Thus there is a demand to associate schemes of the organisation, concern ( Es ) and information engineering ( IT ) acquisition with that of information systems. ISA attack provides range for relationship appraisal and constitution and recognizes the issues related to enterprise architectural direction.

Related Work

Enterprise systems architectural rules are rather modern-day since endeavors are more likely to follow IT for adding value to their concerns [ 5 ] . These value add-ons are chiefly due to optimisation of dealing cost, bureau cost, ( taking to optimized usage of factors of production ) , and doing available the coveted information to the stakeholders on demand. All these dimensions of organisational challenges are reflected through IS architectures and planning. IS architecture interfaces between organisational architecture covering with assorted resources and the IT architecture being planned or acquired. It is hence, considered of import to aline these architectures appropriately.

There are assorted attacks to understand, gestate and develop architectural rules. But, the two of import premises which lead to a robust architecture are “ positions ‘ and “ relationships ” [ 6 ] . Positions are considered of import since they reflect on “ structural ‘ , “ behavioural ” and “ executing ” . Structural positions reflect on organisational agreement to understand the functional agreement to back up all its activities, co-ordinate among them to accomplish desired consequences. An illustration of this analysis is to bring forth a snapshot on “ organisation construction ” . Another dimension of this structural position purposes to capture the strategic penetrations to the critical success factors of the organisational being. An illustration of this could be to underscore the “ citizen satisfaction ” as the critical success factor for a panchayet raj establishment ( PRI )[ I ]. Behavioral position extends the structural positions to a lower degree in the organisation through which position points of all stakeholders are presented. Besides, it besides includes the positions of the criterion processes which are organized to transport out the programs defined at the structural degree. An illustration to appreciate this position is to include procedure regulations, procedure logics for a peculiar undertaking that can be executed by the PRI. Positions of rural families, PRI, authorities functionaries, and civil society could be included could be portion of this exercising. Execution position is the critical nexus between the intended bringings and the procedure through which the bringings are made. In this IT architecture would come under examination through the IS architecture. In this executing position, package technology rules, IT constituent direction ( hardware, runing systems, applications ) are mapped to back up the positions described structural every bit good as behavioural degrees.

Execution positions are emerging as criterions in many countries to reflect on the architectures. Quality criterions like ANSI/ IEEE Standard 1471-2000, ISQA 4100/8106 ( CIST3100- Organizations, Applications & A ; Technology, ISQA3310- Managing the Database Environment, or ISQA8050- Data Organization & A ; Storage ) provide penetrations to the architectural intervention to the executing positions [ 8 ] , [ 9 ] , [ 10 ] . Service oriented architecture ( SoA ) besides includes executing positions in order to securities firm and orchestrate the services demanded and supplied by the stakeholders in the organisation [ 11 ] .

Another attack to understand the relationship between the organisation architecture ( OA ) and ISA is to stratify the organisational beds. There are three generic beds in an organisation and they are “ strategic ” , “ tactical ” and “ operational ” . Architecturally, ISA maps them into three distinguishable beds and they are “ nucleus ” , “ distribution and web ” , and “ entree ” beds [ 5 ] , [ 10 ] , [ 12 ] . In Figure 2 below, this function is presented.




Network & A ; Distribution




Figure2: Organizational Architecture Maping

The operational bed in the organisation is really critical since all the “ minutess ” occur in this bed. These minutess ( for exchange of goods, services and information ) are governed by regulations and logics prepared for run intoing organisational aims. Databases generated to pull off these minutess in this bed play a polar function. Event log direction, tracking dealing proprietors ( citizens/customers/internal employees/ other stakeholders like providers ) and back uping their demands are bringings in this bed. ISA footings it as “ entree bed ” and transforms the bringings through “ user interfaces ” and the medium is “ points of services ” ( PoS ) . For ISA, this is the critical bed since success of all backend services/infrastructure lies in this bed. Examples of such entree bed is “ Automated Teller Machine ( ATM ) ” in banking systems, personal digital helper ( PDA ) for dairy husbandmans and PDAs for coach path directors supplying online services to riders etc. in ISA this bed independently grows with an apprehension that other beds take note of the services demanded.

The tactical bed is the support construction for operational and strategic beds. This bed in the organisation is largely looked after by “ sphere experts ” and their bringing is through a mix of explicit and tacit cognition. They take attention of all procedures, regulations and logics and are responsible for set uping standard operating processs ( SOPs ) in order to pull off the minutess successfully in the operational bed. Critical success factors in this bed include systems be aftering for alining with organisational aims, set uping inter-functional interface processs and public presentation measuring criterions. ISA adequately considers all these attributes “ web and distribution bed ” purposes to include them. Data warehouses, web applications, n-tier applications for databases with user centered designs are illustrations of this bed which are in fact designed for back uping entree and nucleus beds.

The strategic bed maps at the vertex of the organisation and establishes waies for operation of the organisation. It besides looks after constabularies, long term programs and directs for accomplishing short term accomplishments while keeping the nexus to its mission statement. Chief executive officer ( CEOs ) , and board of governors constitute this bed. This bed needs to guarantee that ultimate stakeholders ( citizens/customers/shareholders ) are benefited out of the organisational procedures. Largely these stakeholders are in operational bed. In ISA idiom, this bed belongs to the Chief Information Officer ( CIO ) , engaged in explicating IT scheme, IT acquisitions, and set uping the coveted information substructure for the stakeholders. In generic footings the entree bed becomes the platform for the distribution/network bed to execute as per policies and schemes formulated in the nucleus bed.

In both these positions related to organisation and ISA, the common component is the attachment to bury layer relationships through a cohesive model. For this intent the context becomes of import since this ensures the manner this relationship is adhered to.

Relevance for Indian E-Governance

Discussion on planetary e-governance systems suggests a clear way to policy shapers and implementers which calls for purveying of converged and value added services to citizens with least cost, clip, and attempt. It is besides apparent that e-governance systems need to germinate to “ connected administration ” through constitution of robust substructure, backend integrating with all stakeholders, and transforming the authorities itself through invention and value add-on. Information provided in Figures 1, 2 and 3 indicate that connected administration is possible through stages. It needs a conjunct attempt to graduate any e-government attempt to connected administration. As shown in Figure 1 and Box 1, it is compulsory for any state to guarantee its preparedness in each phase earlier traveling to the following higher phase. In the context of Indian e-governance attempts, the state of affairs is non different when compared to planetary e-governance scenarios, experiences, and tendencies.

In India, foundation of e-governance was laid during 1954 when the Planning Commission introduced computing machines followed by puting up of the Department of Electronics ( DoE ) in 1970 and constitution of the National Informatics Centre in 1970 as a national bureau to do available necessary substructure across all provinces to supply required connectivity with the cardinal authorities. The authorities ‘s policies to promote digital authorization are presented in Table 1.

Table 1: Indian E-Governance Genesis [ 13 ] , [ 14 ]


E-Governance Genesis



New Computer Policy

Spread of Computer Use


Policy on Software Export, Development and Training

To advance Sectoral growing in ITeS, Business Process Outsourcing


Puting up of NICNET, DISNIC

Puting up of IT substructure in Government Sector


Policy on National Telecommunication ( NTP 94 )

To guarantee better Tele-density, concentrate on Rural Telephony


Establishing of Internet ; Spectrum Allocation and Release

Web Access and bandwidth allotment for usage


Constitution of Telecom. Regulatory Authority ( TRAI )

To unbundle telecommunication services ( last stat mi )


National Task Force on IT

To explicate an Information technology policy papers


Creation of Ministry of IT

To supervise execution of IT policy


Policy on National Telecommunication ( NTP 99 )

To speed up tele-density


Formulation of IT Act

To supply legal position to utilize of IT in concern, authorities, and administration systems


Formulation of Communication Convergence Bill

Convergence of content, convergence of passenger car, and convergence of Terminal


Telecom Disputes Settlement and Appellate Tribunal ( TDSAT )

Fair and crystalline telecom. services


Corporatization of DoT ( formation of BSNL )

Unbundling of the telecommunication sector, private sector investings and pull offing USO


National E-Governance Plan ( NeGP )

Provide services under MMPs and CSCs


Fundamental law of Unique Identification Authority of India

Provide Digital Inclusion for citizens and occupants in India

These events provide the range to explicate architectural positions of e-governance attempts in India as per the model presented in Fig.2. The nucleus bed is actively sing policies that are targeted at network/distribution beds and entree beds are having the services as planned. Tactical beds include province informations centres, province degree bureaus and they are working towards presenting services demanded by the entree bed. Access bed has remained disjointed and assorted bureaus in the spectrum of development, authorities and civil society are endeavoring for widening support. In the current context, Indian e-governance systems have seen fecund growing in set uping PoS in the villages/ group of small towns. Assorted signifiers of such entities include common service centres ( CSC ) , village resource centres ( VRC ) , ATMs, and other mechanism back uping B2G, G2G, G2B, B2B and G2C services. Convergence among these services and set uping a model for incorporate PoS for citizens are in the skyline.

Related work in Global E-Governance Scenario

Global attempts in e-governance have delivered assorted consequences. Some states ( depending on size, socio-political complexness, and authorities ) have been able to deduce appreciable consequences out of this exercising. United Nations ( UN ) , European Union ( EU ) , and other planetary entities have embraced e-governance patterns and hold given importance to citizen centered services [ 15 ] . It has been recognized that e-governance attempts need to bridge the digital divide, create digital inclusion chances and should be devoid of engineering focal point [ 16 ] . More attending demands to be given to organisational set up However, surveies indicate that many e-governance attempts have either partly failed or make non run into expected results. It has been argued that while there are cases of success during flying e-governance undertakings, scale up schemes are inadequately managed and therefore the failures are attributed to architectures [ 17 ] , [ 18 ] . Consolidations and convergences are two major emerging countries of challenges for e-governance contrivers globally [ 19 ] . Such challenges are related to architectural positions which can supply necessary waies. Therefore there is a demand to understand issues and challenges involved in set uping architectural positions.


In Figure 2 ISA provides superimposed relationships with positions. Each bed in ISA has a specific undertaking to carry through while keeping the unity among relationships, positions and contexts planned.

Policy devising bureau

( Governance system )

Facilitating Agencies ( Operating Systems )


( Moderators )



Network ( 2 )

Information Systems

Access ( 3 )

Information Systems

Core ( 1 )




Figure 3: Proposed ISA Framework

In this architectural model, “ position ” is termed as the “ intended bringings ” and “ context ” reflects the manner the positions are implemented. In Figure 3, a model is proposed to depict the function of ISA in e-governance systems. As explained in subdivision 2, ISA needs to aline with organisational architecture. In Figure 3, it is argued that ISA interfaces with the organisation in three possible ways and these are established through beds. OA constituents are governance systems, runing systems and citizens. Governance systems include elective organic structures in the full spectrum get downing from PRIs to national scene. Operating systems include all authorities bureaus, support bureaus and civil society which provide support to the administration systems. Citizens form the critical constituent in OA model who moderate the being of administration and runing systems. As per ISA model, Information Systems-1 ( IS-1 ) , IS-2 and IS-3 demand to interface between OA constituents. This coveted linkages among the organisational constituents together with that of ISA is termed as alliance. For illustration, IS-1 interfaces between administration system and the operating system whereas IS-2 interfaces between operating system and citizens. Such alignment demands to jointly adhere to the critical success factors of ISA model. It may be seen here that ISA focuses on entree bed whereas OA focuses on administration systems.

Table 2: ISA Framework for E-Governance Assessment

ISA Framework for E-Governance

Information System Layer


Critical Success Factors

( Contexts )


( Operational Layer )

Citizen Interfaces

Citizens are Transaction Owners

Time, cost and convenience are of import

Handiness of Servicess on Demand

Quality of Service

IS Imperative moods

Ease of usage, Usability and Citizens ‘ credence

Service purveying through local Community Based organisations

Converged services

Capacity Building

IT Imperatives

Convergence among Servicess

Local Language interfaces

Transaction Scorecards, and Alerts

Splashboards for Community Based Organizations


( Network/ Distribution Layer )

Interfaces with Citizens

Standardized service Provisioning

Capturing latent demand

Interfaces with Agencies

Coordination among bureaus for SoPs

Preparation of Guidelines

Capacity Building

IS Imperative moods

Constructing Information Infrastructure

Convergence among systems, procedures

Training, Development and motive of internal stakeholders to reengineer and accept alterations

IT Imperatives

Intranets, extranets

Unified Positions of applications, databases and services


Decision Models


( Core Layer )

Interfaces with Citizens

Mandates designed for citizen benefits

Collaboration with citizens to plan systems

Capturing Citizens point of views on administration

IS Imperative moods

Information direction policy

Convergence Policy

Roadmap for constructing Information Infrastructure

Evaluation of Citizen-centered QoS

IT Imperatives

Puting Resource Standards

Common Procedures for Infrastructure Management

In Table 2, information systems positions and the critical success factors of the contexts ( declarative, non thorough ) for interfaces are discussed. Critical success factors are contextual since they describe the ways positions are captured through IS and IT planning. In this treatment it is of import to observe that in the nucleus bed of OA, IS-1 needs to guarantee backward linkage through which strategic contrivers are able to understand citizen positions. This is an of import nexus to supply coveted penetrations to IS-2 at the distribution/network bed of ISA and related to the operating systems established by the administration construction. Performance rating in footings of user interfaces like latency, QoS, PoS and converged services are of import dimensions for the nucleus bed to appreciate and construct a mechanism to prosecute in long term. Such IS jussive moods will ever direct or act upon IT substructure development schemes.


MGNREGS is an act notified in the twelvemonth 2005. It envisages 100 yearss of employment yearly for a rural family whose grownup members volunteer for this pay based unskilled work. It aims “ to further conditions for inclusive growing runing from basic pay security and reloading rural economic system to a transformative authorization procedure of democracy [ 19 ] . Get downing its operation of the strategy in the twelvemonth 2006 covering 200 territories, by the twelvemonth 2008, the strategy is called up to make all the territories in India. MGNREGS works on the rules of inclusive growing with transparence, coaction of all stakeholders through established and good organized procedures, and answerability of the delivering bureaus involved at all degrees. State degree bureaus are empowered to guarantee decentralized planning with active engagement of rural citizens, PRIs and other stakeholders. Stakeholders include Wage searchers, Gram Sabha, PRIs ( specially the gm panchayet ) , Programme Officer at the block degree, District Programme Coordinator, State Government and Ministry of Rural Development.

MGNREGS as e-Governance Undertaking

E-Governance systems are being considered as a superset of e-government attempts. In other words it is indispensable to appreciate that e-government solutions need to lend to the big issues related to governance [ 11 ] , [ 17 ] . MGNREGS provides all the sunglassess of administration since its mission statement aims to heighten livelihood security of rural families. Concurrently, all province authoritiess, PRIs and other bureaus including civil society are involved to back up this strategy.

IS Planing in MGNREGS

A careful analysis of the planning procedure of MGNREGS indicates being of standard operating processs for put to deathing the strategy at a national degree. Operational guidelines are reflecting these processs in item. The strategy recognizes the importance of IS be aftering during its origin. Being of a web site with url hypertext transfer protocol: // and links to the Ministry of Rural Development portal is an indicant of the organized planning procedure. The website contains information on gm panchayets, blocks, territories and provinces. Job card figure centric questions are possible through the web site.

An analysis based on the architectural model discussed in subdivision three provides following inside informations:

Table 3: IS be aftering in MGNREGS

IS Planing Process Analysis as per ISA Framework

Information System Layer


Critical Success Factors Addressed

( Contexts )


( Operational Layer )

Citizen Interfaces

Workers Entitlement information

Information on demand for work

Phases of work in advancement or completed

Fundss handiness

Job card based information to the individual engaged in the strategy.


( Network/ Distribution Layer )

Interfaces with Citizens

1.Roles and duties of PRIs, Citizens are available in the guideline

2. Capturing Physical and Financial Progress

Interfaces with Agencies

3. Guidelines suggest the coaction with province degree bureaus, PRIs, District Level Agencies

Faculties to be available in the populace sphere

Convergence with other strategies

IS Imperative moods

Handiness of MIS in the populace sphere

2. Faculties of applications related to hold

Standard Estimates

Quality of Work

Worker Management, Fund Management, Labour Budgeting, Social Audit, Grievance Redressal, Alerts, Knowledge Network

3. Monthly Advancement Reports at all degrees in the operating system


( Core Layer )

Interfaces with Citizens

1. Policy to meet

2. Policy to heighten to income of rural family

3. Plan for heightening livelihood security

4. Analyze tendencies and be aftering for future at small town degree

IS Imperative moods

1. Tracking financess use at national degree with focal point on single family, Panchayat

2. Alerts for unrealized demand

IT Planning in MGNREGS

IT planning is an event that follows the IS be aftering [ 12 ] . It is indispensable for the national degree bureaus to supply a holistic position during executing of IT substructure undertakings that follow the IS be aftering procedure. In Table 4 below such a position is taken to understand the position of contexts met so far.

Table 4: Information technology Planning in MGNREGS

IT Planning Process Analysis as per ISA Framework

Information System Layer


Critical Success Factors Addressed

( Contexts )


( Operational Layer )

Citizen Interfaces

Grant ownership to Citizen

Provide local linguistic communication based interaction

Make available information at least cost, low latency and accurate

1. Job card based information to the individual engaged in the strategy.

2. Crediting occupation card holders ‘ bank history in certain topographic points

3. VKC, VRC, CSC are available


( Network/ Distribution Layer )

1. Interfaces with State Wide Area Networks

2. Web interfaces for citizens and stakeholders listed

3. Exception Managing Alerts

1. Web based NREGAsoft is available

2. Unicode enabled package for local linguistic communication interfaces

3. Microsoft engineering and Open beginning compatibility

4. Validation with rural family study BPL nose count 2002

5. Convergence among other strategies under Ministry of Rural Development ( Pilots )


( Core Layer )

Convergence among informations beginnings

Unified positions for all stakeholders

Common operating processs and guidelines for execution

Procedures available for IT Infrastructure acquisition and deployment


In Tables 3 and 4, ISA model provides an penetration to the planning procedure for IS and IT for this national degree strategy holding a considerable graduated table ( physical and fiscal ) and range ( societal and digital inclusion ) . It amply indicates that IS-2 is rather strong in footings of guidelines, processs to be aftering, executing and monitoring of the strategy. But there are few issues which need to be considered on precedence to do the IS be aftering holistic and IT program to follow them meticulously across all beds of IS.

The first on the precedence list suggested is the “ nucleus bed ” of ISA. As per OA guidelines, the mission statement says the MGNREGS should heighten livelihood security of local people through pay employment. Dimensions of support security have a big canvas and they are complex to manage. In such a scenario, the convergence programs may be in topographic point in the nucleus bed itself to guarantee logical decomposition of these dimensions of livelihood security phenomenon. Besides, roadmap for MGNREGS to lift bit by bit to run into all the dimensions of livelihood security demands to be established to turn to the challenges of the mission statement. Few emerging issues out of this exercising may necessitate critical consideration for execution:

Focus on family degree support security appraisal with convergence in the backend

Decision theoretical accounts for convergence among other strategies and scenario edifice for budgeting at the national degree

Capture family precedences through socio-technical audits by set uping assorted signifiers of direction information systems and reflecting them in the IT acquisition guidelines.

Meta informations coevals at the appropriate degrees and converge with other strategies like Unique Identification Authority of India.

Robust informations architecture coupled with database architecture

The 2nd in the precedence list is to place the range for betterment in the “ distribution/network ” bed of ISA. Core bed visualizes livelihood security as the ‘central issue ” . Thus ISA model suggests that a “ systemic convergence ” attack should be in topographic point in this bed ( IS-2 ) . Aggregation rules adopted in the guidelines and operational processs need holistic position. The emerging issues out of this analysis need careful considerations:

Interfaces among spacial and non-spatial databases and applications for incorporate positions across all coordinating bureaus.

Standard costing, benchmarks and undertaking direction tools with determination theoretical accounts are needs in this bed for unvarying applications

Capacity edifice of intermediary organisations to conform to the SoPs while put to deathing the strategy is needed for better planning at the IS degree

Making database with least dealing latency, tracking logs of minutess and making necessary triggers for better splashboards.

Database architecture

The 3rd in the precedence list as ISA model is the “ Access bed ” . This bed has three major challenges to turn to: one, information supplies need to make the rural family, intermediary bureaus irrespective of their demand coevals capablenesss. The 2nd involves constitution of attacks that could take to existent systems use and this is possible through coevals of trust for this technologically transformed systems and their easiness of usage. The 3rd challenge is to supply convergence among applications, services and databases for incorporate positions for the citizens in the entree bed. Rural families need to be encouraged to utilize these services and they should be explained about the utility of the services. Last, backdown scheme needs to be embedded to the systems so that livelihood security of the rural families is managed by them and non through support bureaus. ISA model looks for sustainable systems and therefore there is a demand to hold sustainable constituents to lend to this docket.


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